Example Research Paper

Sustaining Technical Education in the Age of Globalization
By Selfa J. Briones and Andrea Bagares

Introduction

example research paperAware that the quality of human resources is necessary in the age of information technology, both private and public colleges and universities sustain their programs to produce globally competitive graduates.  Labor Secretary Laguesma said in a TV interview (January 9, 2001) the employment should be sustained despite the crisis.  This challenges technical educational institutions to make their programs responsive to the needs of the times and to maintain the university of technology education.  These institutions should produce graduates to manage the deteriorating industries to propel the economy to progress.  Santos (2000, p.50) emphasized the compelling need for an excellent technical education in the 21st Century.

Objectives of the Study

This study determines the employability of technician graduates of TUP-Taguig in terms of job readiness, job relevance, and competitiveness.  This research answers the following questions: 1) To what extent do globalization-ready factors facilitate learning? 2) To what extent do the respondents perceive the following factors? 2.1) Industry-related 2.2) School-related; 2.3) Student-related; and 3) What is the employability level of technician graduates of TUP-Taguig?

Hypothesis

The following variables predict the employability of technician graduates: job readiness, job relevance, and competitiveness.

Review of Related Literature

The Age of Globalization

Mazarr (2000) emphasizes the vital role of human interaction.  This emerges from globalization, world trade, communications and media whose activities span the globe, stimulate world-wide awareness and stir emergence of a global consumer culture.  Evidence of this process is overwhelming, at least in the economic realm (p.90).

Technology, as a driving force of change, creates new forms of competition overnight.  Tucker (p.39) stresses that it is only one of the boosting methods.  In preparation for the 21st century, the Philippines has welcomed globalization, liberalization, and deregulation (Santos, 2000, p.80).  Santos stresses that big corporations will only hire excellent graduates.  This compels educational institutions to deliver quality education.

The Linkage between Industry and School

Montefrio (1988) states that linkage is a real working relationship where technical-vocational education is not only the concern of the school but also the employer’s (p.56).  He believes that linkages could be effective of industry leaders join the school board of trustees.

School-related factors are important in education.  Manzano (1992)  states that a sound and an effectives system of education needs financial and human resources (p.87). Pada (1991, p.60) emphasizes that faculty and staff development should cope with the fast changing technologies including facility development (p.68).  He also cites that the faculty of technical programs should be experienced technicians who are pedagogically trained continuously.  Banez (1994, p.58) stresses the need for objectivity in hiring faculty based on their specialization and experience.  Villegas (1994, p.79) found that the more competent a faculty member, the easier it is for the graduates to find jobs.  Nawagan (1992, p.99), on the other hand, found out that productivity and employability of graduates are influenced by the teaching experience and educational attainment of teachers and the adequacy of facilities.

Information Technology Integration

The use of computers in problem solving is increasing rapidly (Erickson and Hall, 1995, p.28).  Thus, computers are used widely in education.  Accordingly, Burns and Bozeman (cited by Dick, 1992, p.75) claim that mathematics programs supplemented with computer-implemented drills and practice exercises are more effective than using only traditional means  Cheah, Ko, and Teo (1999) contend that the effective learning of science generally involves the need to visualize the various scientific concepts to understand (p. 100)

Employability of Graduates

The goal of education is to produce quality graduates.  Vinluan (TUP Research Abstract, 1988-93) revealed the following: 51% of the employed respondents are regular employees in private firms; the absorption of the graduates vary.  The OJT and the work attitude of the graduates surfaced as the major factors of their employment.

Salvador (1995) found that interest and performance in the major subjects are significantly related with their employability (p.98).  Estrabo (1996) claimed that graduates with high level work attitude and achievement motivation have the highest percentage of employment (p.90).  Aberin (1994), on the other hand, averred that students services, laboratory facilities and the school attended significantly affect employability.

Another study concluded that faculty competence is a major factor in employability.  In another study, to determine employability, Cabancia (1992) used relevance of training with job hunting time as an indicator.

Definition of Terms

Curriculum refers to the lateral integration of school-based subjects to meet the qualifications demanded by industry.

Factors to facilitate learning refers to the adoptive change through integration of information technology to facilitate learning, and the acquisition of materials for evaluation to cope with changing needs.

Industry-TUP-Taguig Linkage is the agreement between the industry and TUP-Taguig administration to provide students on the job/supervised training for 28 hours.

Integration of Information Technology is the important adaptive change to facilitate learning.

Sustainability of technician education is the ability of the TUP-Taguig technician education under the TUP-Taguig linkage to maintain a high job readiness and relevance, and the advantage among graduates.

Sustaining factor refers to the industry, school and student-related factors to maintain technician education.

Methodology

Being descriptive, the study used three groups of respondents: 150 technician graduates of TUP-Taguig, 20 personnel of the industry partners, and 10 faculty coordinators.  Means were computed to describe the variables.  Regression analysis determined the predictors of employability of technician graduates in terms of job readiness, job relevance and competitive advantage.

Summary of Findings

Globalization-Ready Factors

The three groups of respondents considered information technology a vital tool in education.  They perceived that IT tools should be fully integrated in the technician education curriculum to cope with the global trend of education.  The respondents also believed that through IT tools, like the internet and other computer-aided programs, an institution can achieve its goals  Santos (2000, p 92) emphasizes that the ultimate evaluator of quality education is the market.  Organizations and corporations will hire excellent graduates.

Sustaining Factors

The industry related factors obtained a mean of 3.57.  The 4.01 overall mean proves that the technician graduates who have full industry exposure are more employable.

The School-Related Factors

The school has met the qualifications demanded by industry with the overall mean of 3.79.  The teaching quality with an overall mean of 3.46 is satisfactory.  Mastery of the subject matter of the technician education specialists obtained a very satisfactory rating of 3.74.

The Student-Related Factors

The overall mean of 3.80 proves that the technician graduates are conversant with the work.  They have developed work values required by the job  The technician education sustainability provided the graduates with high job readiness.

Predictors of Employability in Terms of: Job Readiness, Job Relevance, and Competitive Advantage

The predictive abilities of the model, the curriculum, teaching methods, and industry exposure are vital instruments in the job readiness.  Industry exposure is the only predictor for job relevance.  Acierto (1990) asserts that the OJT has influenced significantly the success of job search.  On the other hand, the three predictors of competitive advantage are industry exposure, teaching methods, and technology use.  Tucker (1998, p.88) contends that the use of technology provides a strategic edge (competitive advantage) and that technology has changed the business design work of a firm.  Another factor for competitiveness is the methodology of the professor (Aberin, 1994, p.69)

References

Aberin, S.P (1994) Employability and Initial earnings of graduates in B.S. in Industrial Education in Region X.  Unpublished Thesis, TUP, Manila.

Basilio, E.L. & De Leon. P.F. (1998).  Cashing in on good times.  A business world 10th anniversary special.

Bautista. R.A. (1997).  Employability of graduates of dual tech training center.  Perspective for policy formulation.  Unpublished  Thesis, TUP, Manila.

Boone, R & Higgins, K (1998, March).  An evaluation framework for educational software special education.  Paper presented during the 15th  International Conference on Technology and Education, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA.

Bray, M (1999, March).  Reading the front page:  Delivery of a good graduate reading class in the web using front page ’98.  Paper presented during the 16th International Conference on Technology and Education , Edinburgh, Scotland.

Briones, S (2000).  Sustaining technical educations in the age of globalization.  Philippine journal of industrial education and technology, 11.

Cheah, H. Koh, T., & Teo, B. (1999, March).  Some examles of using web technologies to enhance science education.  Paper presented during the 16th International Conference on Technology and Education.  Edinburgh, Scotland.

David, R.  Why are We in Crisis?  Philippine business, 7(5)

Drucker, P (2000, May 15).  Webducation is the next great growth opportunity.  Forbes, p.93.

Estrabo, H.D. (1996).  The employability of technology graduates of Rizal Polytechnic College.  Unpublished Thesis, TUP, Manila.

Galvin, C & Tooker, G. (1993, May).  Community relations vision.  Motorola Commitment, Manila.

Leach, G (2001).  Commerce and trade.  Encarta 2001.

Mazarr, M.J. (1999).  Global trends 2005. U.S.A. St. Martin’s Press.

Mirandilla, A.P. (1995).  Employability of graduates of technological colleges and universities in selected Calabarzon industries.  Perspective to curriculum development.  Unpublished Dissertation, TUP, Manila.

Nawagan, A. (1992).  Productivity of auto-mechanics and electrical power diploma of private technical colleges in Bangkok., Thailand.  Unpublished Dissertatin, TUP Manila.

Perez, J.R. (1993).  Acceptability of TUP’s linkage activity among entrepreneurs-managers of industries in Metro Manila  Research abstract of TUP-Manila.

Presillas, P. (1999).  Studying the effects of globalization on lower-income socio-economic group accessibility to training opportunities.  The dualtech training experience (1991-1997).  World bank study.

Santos, N. (2000, April 26).  Education in the age of globalization.  People’s journal.

Serapio, M.S. Jr. (1998).  Sustaining growth via trade and investments.  A business world 10th anniversary special.

Supervised industrial training program manual.  (1996-2000)

Technological University of the Philippines – Taguig campus. (1999).  TUP-Taguig annual report 1998-1999.

Tucker, R.B. (1998).  Managing the future: 10 driving forces of change for the next century.  New York:  Berkeley Publishing Group.

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An Example of Instructions on Report Writing

Organization of Report

Much of what we are going to say about the organization of reports also applies to technical letters.  But the report is a good deal more formal, and the sequence of sections is more firmly established.  In a report these sections are given sub-titles for the convenience of the reader and for ease of reference.  Normally this is not done in a technical letter.  In drafting long letters, however, it is helpful to set up section headings similar to those in reports.  These may be deleted in the final revision of they do not add to clarity.  Not all of the sections discussed need be included in a report or letter.

A report consists of several essentially independent parts, with each succeeding one supplying greater detail about the problem.  You start in by merely stating the subject and title.  Next you may give a summary of the report.  Then you give much more information in the body of the report.  Finally, detailed descriptions of apparatus, materials, or data are supplied in the appendix so that the experiments can be duplicated or the conclusions verified.  To be sure, this involves some repetition, but permits the reader to stop whenever he has gotten enough detail to satisfy his needs.

Formal reports are bound with a heavy paper cover.  Just inside the cover is the title page.  This repeats much of the information on the cover, and in addition, tells who sent the report, who approved it, who did the actual work on the project, and who received copies of the report.

Opening Sections of a Report

Title

Filing purposes require that the title consist of a subject name, plus descriptive words to cover the specific study reported.  For example, “HK Alkylation – Effect of Reaction Temperature.”  This principle applies equally to letters.  A title should be appropriate, informative, and unique.  It should be no longer than necessary.

Summary

The most important part of your report is the Summary.  It is the section most often read; sometimes it is the only part read.  There is a strong feeling that the Summary should be tailored to fit on a single page.  In some instances this is not possible for it must be long enough to do the job adequately.  If your Summary must run to two or more pages, consider whether you should not precede it by a much shorter Abstract.

The Summary should briefly answer the questions:

1.    What was the problem?
2.    What are the facts and what do they mean?
3.    What are the important conclusions?
4.    What are the important recommendations?

There is no need to validate your data in the Summary; this is left to the Discussion of Results.  Use a short insert table or chart if you can tell your story more effectively, or where it will take the place of a long descriptive passage.  You may, if necessary, refer to a table or chart elsewhere in the report, but make sure it can readily be found.

Conclusions and Recommendations

The writer’s opinions about what was learned, based on the data presented, what steps should be taken as a result, and what additional studies are needed, should be given in the Conclusions and Recommendations.  Both of these go beyond simple and readily apparent observations.  In other words, saying that “the F-1 and F-2 Octane ratings are 95 and 82 is an observation.  The statement “Because of the widespread in F-1 and F-2 ratings, the fuel should have a good rich mixture performance” is a true conclusion in which the writer has applied his judgment to interpreting the data.

If there is no valid conclusion or recommendation, do not try to devise one.  But since most work of value will support a sound conclusion, be sure one is not being overlooked  All the important conclusions and recommendations in the report should be listed in this section.

It is customary to open this portion with an introductory sentence or two which will set the stage for what is to follow.  Your conclusions and recommendations may then be itemized, as (1), (2), (3), etc.  Where this portion of your report is short, the section may be eliminated and the conclusions given as part of the Summary.

Table of Contents

For short reports (up to 5-8 pages) a Table of Contents is usually not necessary.  For longer reports it serves as a guide and tells the reader at a glance the scope of the report.  Preparing it will give you an opportunity to check the logic of the organization of your report.  It is, in essence, the outline from which you worked

If a Table of Contents is worth preparing, it is worth doing well.  Use the same care in choice of words that you have used in the selection of a title.  Place the Table of Contents after the Conclusions and Recommendations; the reader who goes no farther than this has no need of the table  Separate lists of tables and charts giving page numbers may be included after the Table of Contents.

Introduction

The first section in the body of the report is the Introduction.  It includes a statement of the problem, the value of the work to the company, and the background and reasons for the work  Here you can list references to previous letters or reports, tell why the particular field of investigation was chosen, the relation of the problem to other fields of endeavor, the scope and limits of the report, and some mention of future work contemplated,  The Introduction is not a rehash of the Summary.  It sets the stage for what is to follow.

If only a sentence of introductory material is needed, this section may be omitted and the introductory thought covered elsewhere in the body of the report.

In addition to the foregoing sections found is most reports, there are others that, with the Introduction, make up the body of the report.  Your range of these section headings is practically unlimited, provided that the terms chosen are applicable to the problem.  These may be either generic terms such as:

Preparation of Samples (or Charge Stocks)
Test Methods
Operating Procedures
Product Specifications
Presentation of Data
Discussion of Results
Apparatus (or Equipment)

Or better still they may be specific titles dealing with the study, as:
Hydrotreating
Concentration by Vacuum Steam Distillation
Chemistry of Gum Formation
Effect of Sulfur Trioxide on Color
Possible Markets for Product
Analysis of a Two-Component Acid Mixture
Method of Aging

Some generic headings occur in reports often enough to make worth-while a few comments on them.

Work Done

A section on Work Done can be used to cover the actual work performed and the equipment and materials when these are incidental.  The title preferably is more specific, such as Experimental Runs Made in 20 Liter Cases.  Omit details not pertinent as well as ones understood by the reader.  On the other hand, one fault of technical writers is assuming that the reader is familiar with a test procedure because it has become commonplace to the writer.

Date may be presented in this same section along with the experimental work except when the volume of data is large, in which case it may best be put in a section itself.  Screen the data to eliminate any not pertinent to the results obtained, but don’t delete date merely because they appear to be inconsistent.  Short insert tables or graphs are effective.  For example:

The values for competitive regular motor oils were:
Mean Piston Rating
Mean Viscosity Increase
Mean Normal Pentane Insolubles

Voluminous data should be relegated to an appendix, using references in the text as necessary.

Discussion of Results

This is the span between the factual data and the writer’s conclusions.  In it, your are leading the reader through the reasoning necessary to understand the conclusions and see that they are sound.  Logic sometimes requires that you advance the opposing arguments in order to show that these are outweighed by the advantages, or that they are disproved by the assembled facts.  Don’t assume that the reader agrees with your conclusions, but establish their validity through the process of logical reasoning.  Try to strike a balance between annoying the reader by too thorough a discussion, and making it necessary for him to verify our conclusions by analyzing the data himself.

This is probably the section in which it is most difficult to refrain from using long, involved sentences.  Even though your reasoning may be complex, keep your style simple and straightforward.

Here is the place to include a statement of the limitations of the data and how far the information may be used in other connections.

Where the conclusions are fairly obvious and not much discussion is needed, this section may be left out and the points covered under another section such as Work Done.

Bibliography

Many reports contain a list of references to prior articles, reports, letters, and patents directly related to the field of investigation.  Usually these are referred to in the text, and in this case should be itemized and numbered in the order of reference.  The text reference need only show the item number in parenthesis.

The bibliography is placed after the last page of the report (the signature page), and ahead of the appendices, if any.

Appendix

In order to shorten reports and make them more readable, detailed descriptions of materials or apparatus used, operating procedures, detailed experimental results, and the like, are often included as appendices to the body of the report.  There may be several in a report.  Each appendix should be written as a separate unit.  If detailed data are set up as an appendix, condensed tables or charts should be included in the main body of the report to support the conclusions reached. In other words, your report should be complete and self-sufficient in itself.  Appendices are added to provide detail of value to future workers.  Be sure to make reference in the body to appended material.

Prepared By:

The Research and  Development of the Sun Oil Company

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Sequence of a Research Report

According to Technical Writing and Reporting by Igoy, Saymo and Esperon, research report is a careful, systematic, methodical and objective inquiry that leads to the development of generalization and theories.  To present the result of the experiment or study, a scientific writing called the research report should be made.

The following are the sequence of a Research Report.  This outline follows the usual sequence in research reports.

A.    Preliminary Section or Front Matter
1.    Title Page
2.    Acknowlegement (if any)
3.    Table of Contents
4.    List of Tables (if any)
5.    List of Figures (if any)

B.    Main Body of the Report
1.    Introduction
a.    Statement of the Problem – specific questions to be answered- hypothesis tested
b.    Significance of the Problem
c.    Purposes of the Study
d.    Assumptions, Limitations and Delimitations
e.    Definition of Important Terms

2.    Review of Related Literature or Analysis of Previous Research

3.    Design of the Study
a.    Procedures Used
b.    Sources of Data
c.    Methods of Gathering Data
d.    Description of Data-gathering Instruments Used

4.    Presentation and Analysis of Data
a.    Text
b.    Table
c.    Figures

5.    Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
a.    Restatement of the Problem
b.    Description of Procedures Used
c.    Principal Findings and Conclusions
d.    Recommendation for Further Research

C.    Reference Section
1.    Bibliography
2.    Appendix

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Example of Topic Outline

Topic Outline:  Classification of Nails

1.    General Purpose
1.1. Common
1.2. Box
1.3 Casing
1.4 Finishing

2.    Special Purpose Nails

2.1 Bricksiding

2.2 Concrete and Maronry
2.2.1  Regular Shank
2.2.2  Grooved Shank

2.3 Flooring
2.3.1  Regular Shank
2.3.2  Grooved Shank

2.4  Wall Board
2.4.1  Regular Shank
2.4.2  Grooved Shank

2.5  Dual Head

2.6  Insulation Building Board
2.6.1  Regular Shank
2.6.2  Grooved Shank

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Preface Sample

Over the past decade, it has become increasingly difficult for electric utilities to receive timely approval of new nuclear generating facilities.  In part, siting difficulties arise because of strong opposition to nuclear plants by some citizens who perceive that such plants pose threats to health and safety.  If many people hold such views, it seems logical to expect that people would not choose to live in communities near such plants and that, as a consequence, residential property values would decline and economic growth would be adversely affected.

Information about the extend to which society holds such fears about health and safety would enable utilities and government agencies to make better-informed siting decisions.  This study aims to supply some of this information.

No economically sound research has been conducted to examine the effects of nuclear generating plants on surrounding property values.  Accordingly, the objectives of this research are twofold:

  1. To ascertain whether, over time, nuclear generating plants have adversely affected the growth of the towns or communities in which they are located.
  2. To determine the effects of nuclear generating plants on the market values of residential properties.

The authors wish to acknowledge the assistance provided by the many local tax assessors and other local and state officials who cooperated so generously with us in providing the data.  We also wish to thank the Plymouth Country, Massachusetts, multiple-listing service for making their files available.  We are grateful to Howard Hester.  Daniel Huegel, and Kathy Philips of the Institute of Land and Water Resources for the time they spent collecting, processing, and coding the data.

Prepared by: Division of Health, Siting and Waste Management

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Descriptive and Informative Abstract

Example of Descriptive Abstract

This study tested the hypothesis that nuclear power plants adversely affect community growth and residential property values in nearby municipalities.  Total assessed real property values from 1960 to 1976 for 64 municipalities and market sales data from 1975 to 1977 on 540 single-family dwellings formed the data base.  The data were for residential property within 20 miles of four nuclear power plants in the northeastern United States: Pilgrim in Massachusetts, Millstone in Connecticut, Oyster Creek in New Jersey, and R.E. Ginna in New York.

Example of Informative Abstract

This study tested the hypothesis that nuclear power plants adversely affect community growth and residential property values in nearby municipalities.  Total assessed real property values from 1960 to 1976 for 64 municipalities and market sales data from 1975 to 1977 on 540 single-family dwellings formed the data base.  The data were for residential property within 20 miles for four nuclear power plants in the northeastern United States: Pilgrim in Massachusetts, Millstone in Conneticut, Oyster Creek in New Jersey and R.E. Ginna in New York.

Analysis of the time series data showed that the average annual growth rates of total assessed values, in real terms, were inversely related to distances from the plants, and that growth in sales for the years following plant construction were higher than for the years before plant construction, with the largest growth rate observed in the host municipalities.  Multiple regression analysis of the cross-section data explained about 80% of the variation in housing prices.  The plants exerted no influence on the price of housing, so the original hypothesis is rejected.  Most people in the areas studied apparently have little fear over plant-related health and safety factors, and the presence of a plant does not in itself influence residential location decisions.  Lower tax rates in host municipalities may even encourage development.

Prepared by: Division of Health, Siting and Waste Management,  Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research.

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Research Design and Methodology

Research Design

The historical data were gathered and previous studies were reviewed again in order to add or improve present study.  It may be noted that a lot of tools were used in order to come up with a comprehensive result.  Aside from questionnaires and on the spot interviews with various sectors, but for the meantime, we get our sources like fishballs, kikiam at Elizabeth Supermarket.  We tend to produce own products by the time the business expands and earns some profit.

Sources of Data

A lot of research works were made in order to come up with a comprehensive data that will justify the viability of our study.  We visited several business like this to gather data regarding the proper management of GF Snack Stand finger food.  Balanga Licensing and application for Mayor’s Permit, National and Statistics for the population of Balanga per barangay, all these provided significant inputs to the researcher’s study and further encouraged to go on with the project.

We conducted several interviews with our competitors owners or the managers and also the vendors to know their views regarding this kind of business.  And with the help of information from them, we decided to put up this kind of business here in Balanga Terminal.  All of the data were treated with extra care and with confidentiality.

Data Gathering Procedure

The very first step that the research made after deciding on what project to focus on was to look for various reference, materials, we’ve interviews some fishballs stalls on how they cope up with our rising inflation rates, and how we can compete with other fishballs stalls that are coming out in the world of business, we’ve talked a lot of people especially those who are in stall business and whose business in terminal Balanga, Bataan, to hear their views about this kind of finger food.  A questionnaire was prepared but it was not just a simple one.  It includes some profile, which can be used as database for the said food industry.

Statistical Treatment

Data gathered were treated and analyzed as a certain percentage of the community using the formula. TMD = n x P x R.

n = number of buyers in the market
R = number of times a respondent would eat.
P = price of meal.

Respondents

We consumed some different aspect of business especially the business who are related to our business.  All of them gave an honest to goodness answers on the questions provided on the questionnaire with the help of gathering some informations with them were are surely satisfied about their answer.

Excerpt from Research Project by Arde R. Reyes

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The Feasibility of Bagasse and Filter-Press Mud as a Substrate for Mushroom Cultivation

Abstract

Bagasse and filter-press mud (FPM) are the primary by products from processed sugarcane.  This research uses these two by products to create a substrate suitable for mushroom cultivation.  The mushroom spores were initially introduced into test tubes which contained Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA).  After two weeks of incubation, the mycelia were then transferred into bottles containing sorghum seeds.  The mycelia were allowed to develop into grain spawn for two week, after which the spawn were transferred into prepared substrate bags of 1:1, 2:1, 3:1 and 4:1 of bagasse FPM ratios.  A second batch of substrates was made without the 1:1 ratio and with a pure bagasse substrate.  Mushroom growth was recorded after 60 days.  In the first initial trial, the highest growth rate was observed in the 2:1 proportion.  In the second trial, all replicates exhibited positive mushroom growth.  The bagasse and substrates are therefore suitable for mushroom cultivation.

Introduction

Mushrooms, which are in demand in the domestic and world markets, are found everywhere.  They live on dead or decaying organisms such as beneath decaying tree trunks.  They are easy to produce, but growing them in large numbers is a difficult task.

Bagasse and FPM are the principal by products obtained from processing sugarcane.  Bagasse is used primarily as fuel in factories while FPM has no apparent use.  Since they are by products from sugarcane, they could contain nutrients essential for mushroom growth  They could be used as substrates for mushroom culture, specifically oyster mushrooms.

Review of Related Literature

Mushrooms.  Mushrooms are the fruiting structures, or spore-bearing organs, of higher fungi.  They are produced by the fungi’s vegetative bodies (mycelia) growing in the soil, on wood, or in or on other substrates.  Some are very common, but many are found only rarely in special habitats (Lexicon Encyclopedia, Vol. XIII, 1986).

Bagasse.  Bagasse, aside from molasses, are the principal by products from processed sugarcane.  Bagasse is used primarily as fuel for factories and for the manufacture of building boards and paper products (Jain, et.al, 1988).

A study of the ability of P.ostreatus to degrade bagasse was conducted by Poonam Nigam of India.  A significant decrease in crude fibre was found in autoclaved pretreated bagasse samples.  The results indicated a stronger ability of P.ostreatus to degrade bagasse (Nigam, 1988).  This means that oyster mushrooms grow well on bagasse.

Filter Press Mud.  Filter Press Mud (FPM) is the residue that collects in the sedimentation tank during clarification of the sugarcane extract.  It has been used in the production of organic compost.  Otherwise, it is usually discarded.

Materials and Methods

I. Preparation of the Culture Medium (Potato Dextrose Agar or PDA)

Potatoes were first washed and weighed before they were cut into cubes.  They were boiled in a 1/4 liter of water for at least fifteen minutes until they become soft.  The potato extract was strained through an unsoiled cloth.  The volume of the extract was restored to 1/4 liter and the broth was then returned to the casserole.  Powdered dextrose and the agar bar were added and the mixture stirred constantly until they were melted.  The hot solution was poured into clean, flat bottles, filling around a height of 1 inch from the bottom.  For stock cultures, test tubes were filled with at least 10 mL of the liquid agar medium.  Care was taken so that the solution would not touch the mouth of the test tube and the plug will not get stuck.  The mouth was then plugged with a cotton wad.  It was then sterilized in an autoclave for 15 minutes at 120 degree celcius and 15 psi.  (The bottled media can also be steamed in a casserole of water for 1-2 hours.)  After sterilization, the bottles/test tube were cooled to about 45 degree celcius.  The bottles/test tubes were placed in a reclined position in order to increase the surface of the solution in it.  Again, care was taken so that the agar does not touch the plug.  The slanted bottles/test tubes were then stored in a cool place for future use.

This is an excerpt from Bato Balani Magazine.

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Parts of the Research Paper

Abstract
–  Contains that brief discussion of the background and objectives of the problem, statement of the problem, short discussion of research design as well as  findings, conclusion and recommendations.

Title Page

– Composes of title of the research, full name of the researcher, the subject for which the research is presented.  Also, it includes the college and department of the institution to which the research is presented and the month and year in which the research is submitted.

Acknowledgement
– Mention the people who guided in the completion of the research.

Table of Contents
– Lists the chapter headings of the research such as the preliminaries, chapter number, chapter titles and page citations, sub-headings of main headings, bibliography, appendix(ces) with corresponding page.

List of Tables
– Demonstrate the presentation of the captions of the tables with the number of tables, caption of titles and pages in the research where the table is located.

List of Figures and Illustrations
– Includes graphs, charts and other illustrations used in the research.  It shows the numbers of figures and illustration, captions or title, and pages in the research where the figures/illustrations appear.

Introduction
– Background of the study, statement of the problem, statement of the hypothesis, theoretical and conceptual framework, definition of terms, importance of the study and scope and delimitation of the study are included in the introduction.

Review of Related Literature
– Presents what has and has not been researched on the problem by explaining the basis of the theoretical framework.

Methodology
– Presents the procedures in data gathering such as the design of the study, variables and measures, sources of data, instrumentation, procedure, and treatment of research and data.

Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data
– Presentation and analysis of data as well the interpretation are included in this section.

Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
– Summarizes findings to answer the research questions.  Also, include conclusions or generalizations from the collected data as well as the recommendation  and implications for further research and policy implementation

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Writing the First Draft

After having carefully selected and limited your topic, and determined your purpose, audience, language, tone and point of view, your next step is the writing of a first or preliminary draft.

Write this draft rather quickly, without pausing or stopping over details so as not to allow anything to interrupt your thought flow.  Put down everything you know about your topic and write as quickly as you can even if you are not sure of what to say.  Do not try to write and edit at the same time.  The important thing is that you first get all your thoughts down on paper. During draft writing, forget about the spelling grammar and other issues instead focus on any idea that may later be incorporated with the final draft. It is a mental process that takes place before put it on writing.

Writing of the draft is the second stage in the process of writing.  This tentative or first draft will by no means be a final one.  First draft will be the basis of your writing.  It is important to write a draft before writing the final copy of your writing because this will allow you do editing and revising as well as catching any mistakes you might not have caught if only writing a one copy.

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