Sample of Statistical Design

The research study used multiple linear regression stepwise analysis of the effect of temperature to moisture removal from the raw material feed and dryness quality of the three fruits used as experimental tool with respect to the design of the modular dehydrator.

Multiple regression analysis is a multivariate statistical technique that simultaneously probe into the underlying relationships among the given set of variables. The relative magnitude of the dependent relationships is estimated simultaneously enabling the researcher to identify a set of possible predictors of the criterion variable. The formula for multiple regression is ? = a  + b1X1 + b2X2 + b3X3 + ………… + bn-1Xn-1
Where: ? = the variable to be predicted
a  = constant or intercept
b1- bn-1 = slopes of the predictor variables
X1 – Xn-1 = are the values of predictor variables

The slopes of the predictor variables can be calculated by means of the standardized beta weights, ? with respect to the standard deviations of the variables involved in the study being conducted. Multiple regression analysis includes a multiple coefficient of determination symbolized by R2, the proportion of variance in a dependent variable explained by a set of independent variables in combination.
R2 = rxy2 + rzy2 – 2*rxyrzyrxz
1 – rxz2

From the multiple linear regression equation, the slopes of the predictor variables indicate the change in the dependent variable associated with a unit increase in a given predictor, holding constant the other predictor.

To calculate the percentage moisture removed per hour of drying temperature,
MR = mi – mo
where: MR = percentage moisture removed per hour
mi = initial mass load
mo = mass per hour

To be able to know the approximate water content of the fruit to undergo dehydration and the weight reference thereafter:

Mwc = mi * %wc (1)       mwr = mw * %wcstd (2)          mdry = mi – mwr

Where: mwc = water content of food, gram water/gram fresh material
mi = initial mass feed
mwr = amount of water to be removed
wcstd = standard water content in percentage of food
mdry  = mass of dried food, gram dry basis/gram fresh material

Read More

Thesis Scope and Statement of the Problem

Statement of the Problem

The purpose of this study is to develop a source material in food dehydration craft technology which can be used by Makabayan teachers in teaching food dehydration in the Home Economics class. The purpose of the study is to answer the following questions:

  1. What will be the contents of the source material?
  2. What content/s is/are most applicable and doable for practical use of the teachers?
  3. How could secondary school teachers integrate food dehydration methods in the Makabayan subject?
  4. How to use a project based approach in the construction and design of the proposed source material?

Scope and Delimitation of the Study

The primary objective is to develop a source material in food dehydration craft technology and preparation of a manual of procedures that will serve as a guideline in performing the experiments and what will then be the output of said experiments.

The secondary objective is for the course program to provide a combination of educational and work based learning opportunities for the teachers and possibly their student’s career path after leaving the high school portals. With urban based employment growing but cannot absorb the incoming supply of labor, that is, for new high school and college graduates, entrepreneurship in the food sector can offset this imbalance.
As an addendum, the study will only include local fruits such as bananas, mangoes and pineapples as subject of dehydration in the secondary analysis mathematical modeling and proposed manual.

Read More

Sample Background of the Study

In the Philippine setting, dehydrated fruits are produced by bulk processors in comparison to foreign household wherein dehydrators are common kitchen equipment and food dehydration is as common as regular cooking of meals.

At present, a number of government run agricultural high schools are trying to incorporate food dehydration in the chemistry subject. This strategy of introducing food dehydration is being done in the Science High School of the Central Luzon State University (Andaya, The said state university located in Munoz, Nueva Ecija coordinates with the Bureau of Post Harvest Research Extension (BPHRE) in its research in applying methods in food dehydration using locally-sourced material for the fabrication of a drying system that can be used by the farm cooperatives formed by the Department of Agriculture Extension services in the area. BPHRE in turn pilot tests food dryers with less power consumption or sometimes none at all due to the high cost of energy, by setting up a group of mushroom farmers into drying their produce which has a ready market in Central Luzon alone (Mateo,2005).

If home-based or small-scale food dehydration process is promoted widely, the benefits through sub-contracting similar to large producing and exporting countries such as Thailand, Brazil, Ecuador and Uganda will promote income generation in general. Food processing is labor intensive than capital intensive.

In the end view, the study hopes for the gradual assimilation of food dehydration, fabrication process and systems management approach not only in the Makabayan subject component in home and technology but also to a vocational course as food dehydration. The study develops a source material in food dehydration which includes accompanying technological processes for craft production used in the food dehydration industry. This source material maybe beneficial to Makabayan teachers who can integrate a project-based learning strategy in teaching the food dehydration process, dehydrator fabrication and a management framework that is simple enough to be integrated into the secondary school curriculum.

By: Mary Rose Florence S. Cobar

Read More

How Long Does it Take to Write a Thesis

A school or university gives at least one complete term for writing the thesis. Thesis requires complete time for researching, organizing, analyzing, and computing data.  Writing a thesis is easy if you know how to do it.  Some takes one year or two terms in order to complete the thesis.  Thesis written to identified a worthwhile problem or question which is not previously answered and you have to solve d the problem or answer the question.   Then provide evidence or proof for your answer by researching and analyzing this information.  Also, it should be original contribution to knowledge.

Writing thesis requires hard work and patient so it is important that your thesis topic is interesting to you so that it may not be bored.  If you are always excited about your topic, your thesis will be completed in no time.  Always remember that a rush job has a painful consequences at the defense.

Your thesis should be also organized so that you can easily manage everything.  You can start writing an outline so that you will know all section or chapter of your thesis.  Thesis outline can be divided into three (3) parts such as introduction, arguments, and conclusion. You can write your thesis statement under introduction section while future research and summary can be included in the conclusion section.

There are different format for your thesis outline but of course just ask your mentor about it so that He can give advice regarding different formats.

Read More

Dissertation Outline Sample

Dissertation outline can be depends upon the requirement of your school and your field.  The beginning and the ending of the dissertation is standard but the body contains variations depends to your field.  But it is necessary to determine the basic outline of a dissertation to help in your dissertation writing.

Dissertation usually starts with an abstract that will summarize your dissertation.   Then after abstract you can write the acknowledgment which give thanks and appreciation that made your dissertation possible.

After writing the abstract and acknowledgement, table of contents is the next step.  In your table of contents, make sure to include both sections of your dissertation and its sub sections.

The next step is to start with introduction which include the scope of your research.  It includes statement of the problem, importance of the problem, dissertation arguments, research question and hypothesis.

The next chapter will be the review of related literature.  After related literature will the methodology then the results of your study.

Under the methodology chapter, you can include your research design, procedures used and data analysis while in the discussion chapter; you can include summary, conclusions, limitations and recommendation for future research.

The body of your dissertation may be varies depending of your type of field so it is important to determine the requirement of your university or college for your dissertation.  Some school or university provides outline depending the course of their students.

 Sample Dissertation Outline will be the following

  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgment
  • Table of Contents
  • Introduction
  • Review of Related Literature
  • Methodology
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • References
  • Appendices


Read More

Thesis Writing Preparation

Schools or Colleges provides thesis guidelines and requirement for their students so it is important to prepare for these guidelines so that your thesis is passed in their specification.

Thesis writing preparation will be used to know if you are ready to submit your thesis.  It is a complete waste of time if you create a thesis that is not qualified to your colleges.

First of all, you must get a checklist for the college’s requirement for the thesis writing course. Make sure to get the necessary document before your thesis writing such as thesis proposal approval form, thesis title page form, thesis defense form, thesis signature and approval page, thesis table of contents, thesis formats, and many more that your school will required.  Also, list the required page format including the pagination, spacing and alignment.

There are always rules and guidelines to consider when writing thesis based on your school requirement, so better check everything.  School has instruction on how to submit your thesis and how your thesis will look like including thesis components and elements.

Some common errors in your thesis are incorrect margins, cover page wrong format, page number errors, text alignment and spacing.

To avoid mistakes, always check the paper, margin, typing, page numbering, text, table and illustration and references format requirements.

Read More

Sample Thesis and Dissertation

Thesis is one of the hardest tasks that a student should make in order to graduate.  Some school gives thesis structure to be followed by the students. Below is a sample thesis structure:

Title Page
Table of Contents
Figure List
Table List
Method Used
Results and Discussion

Sample thesis and dissertation over the internet is available now a day so students are given a chance to see an actual thesis and used it as guidelines to their thesis writing.  Students should aware of the topic they really care about. They can search an interesting question about it. Choice a topic that is interests you. Sometimes it takes several months to research and writing a thesis.  It requires patience and self-discipline.  Also, make sure that they should narrow the topic to a manageable size.  Some topic is too big so it should be specific. The topic should have enough resources for information. Then make a thesis statement or argument and justify it through presenting enough evidence. Limit the thesis statement to one to two sentences. Include the methodology used as well as the results and discussion. Also include the conclusion.  The last but not the least, grammar and spelling should be checked.

Read More

Thesis Format

There are different thesis layouts.  The thesis format usually depends on the requirement of the school but in general there are elements that should be included in your thesis.  Some schools provide a general format for the thesis or dissertation.

Below is a sample thesis format

  • Cover Letter.
  •  Title Page. It contains the title of your research or thesis as well as your name, date of submission, etc.
  • Thesis Committee. It is contain the names, title and associations of the committee members including space for the signatures and date.
  • Thesis Examining Committee. It includes the names, titles and association of the Thesis Examining Committee members with space for signature and date.
  • Dedication and Acknowledgment.  It is optional. It can be included if there are someone you wish to dedicate and acknowledge to your work.  You can give thanks to your family and colleagues who support in your research.
  • Abstract.  It summarizes the contents of the thesis.
  • Table of Contents.  It lists all the parts of the thesis.
  • List of Tables. It lists all the tables’ titles in numerical order and their page numbers.
  • List of Figures. It contains all the figures used in your research or thesis in numerical orders with their page numbers.
  • List of Symbols and Abbreviations. It contains such as the alphabetical list of conventional signs and shortened forms of words or phrases.
  • Glossary.  It is optional. It includes foreign words or technical terms used in your thesis followed by their translation or definition alphabetically.


Read More

Sample Thesis Topic

Thesis topic is difficult to decide that’s why students and research consult their adviser for the recommendation.  Make sure that your thesis topic is feasible in such a way that there is enough information available.  Also, don’t forget to look if your thesis topic has literature in a way that there is relevant data.

The last but not the least, you should be knowledgeable in your topic thesis.  It is not necessary if your topic is popular as long as you are interested and fascinated in your thesis topic. In addition, it is important that your thesis topic is in your field of specialization.  Think an issue that you want to study and turn into question so that you will finally decided your thesis topic. If your topic is too broad, you should make it specific.

Below are some examples of thesis topic: Some are too broad, limit it into more specific to avoid vague topic and to limit the scope of your thesis statement.

•    Electronic Voting

•    Pros and Cons of Reverse Telephone Look Up Service

•    Formal and Informal Education

•    Advantages of K12 Education System

•    Chest X-ray Requirement for Grade School Students as part of School Admission

•    Causes of Diabetes in Children Today

•    Relationship Between Obesity and Diabetes in Children

•    Effects of Global Warming

•    Public Versus Private School

•    Normal and Caesarian Delivery among Women

Read More

Thesis Statement Writing

Statement of purpose is written and eventually you will determine the thesis statement and done some research. You will state your thesis statement in your introduction and prove your thesis statement with facts in the body of your paper and finally repeat it along with a summary and in your conclusion.

Thesis statement is written to prove with evidence.  It should be a product of your serious thinking after having some research.  The thesis statement will be the main focus of your total project.  It should be the main idea of your paper. Make sure that you have enough research to have a strong argument.

You will never have a thesis without a thesis statement which will tell the reader the importance of the subject matter or main idea and exactly inform the reader what to expect to the rest of the paper.  Thesis statement is usually a single sentence that presents an argument to the reader.

To formulate a thesis statement, you should have a problem and then think of a possible argument.  After you have an argument, you can now start to search for the sources of information to make sure that you will have enough evidence for your thesis statement.

Read More