Ways to Write a Thesis

writing thesisIt is very difficult for the student and professional to start writing a thesis because they do not know how to formulate a thesis statement. A good thesis should states the purpose on the document and should have a perfect structure. A weak thesis lacks in direction and uninteresting to the reader. A good thesis should have arguable claim and should be clear and specific as possible. It should also not answerable by yes or not but a fact that provides evidence. A thesis argument should prove with evidences from primary and secondary resources. These resources include articles, books, letters, diaries, government diaries, magazines, newspaper, etc.

Here are some ways to write to start a thesis:


  1. Make a question about your topic. You can construct your thesis statement by answering that question.
  2. Narrow your thesis topic. A vague topic goes to nowhere.
  3. Limit your thesis statement to one or two sentences in length.
  4. Your thesis statement should interest you so that you cannot be bored with your topic.
  5. Create a fresh and exciting argument but make sure to have enough resources about your thesis.
  6. Make sure that your thesis is provable. Ensure that it will back up with evidence.


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Research Methodology Sample

Research Methodology

Quasi-Qualitative Research

The methods evolved during the initial research following the evaluation of literature and new learning concept in quasi-qualitative research and secondary analysis methods. The literature collected enlightened the researcher’s understanding of practical and effective methods for researching educational phenomena in a technical life. New concepts in quasi-qualitative and interpretative approaches enabled the researcher’s adaptation of appropriate methods for the unique focus of this study.

The problems addressed by this study have been pointed to by research and thinking in system design bricolage, diffusion theory and secondary analysis anchored in grounded theory, with the appendices providing the background summary of said methods mentioned, to arrive at the design aspect of the subject matter which is food dehydration craft technology.

This summary of the combined research methods to acquire data inductively, evaluate it in context and to generate the approaches deem to fit the conceptual framework of the study.

The study drew a combination of approaches: heuristic-technoscience with use of bricolage, diffusion theory and secondary analysis under grounded theory precepts.
Description of Methodology

Prior to conducting a research design, an initial theoretical model was developed using heuristics from prior research and technical experience. The initial model integrated the ideas and constructions generated during the first phase. The initial research activity reviewed the literature and developed researched questions. The literature review spanned the body of journals, abstracts, relevant book sections and references from articles concerning Philippines’ secondary school education in comparison to its Asian neighbors and  across the works of food dehydration process, and industrial design disciplines.
Methodology review was conducted across the qualitative and quantitative research literature starting from phenomenology and hermeneutics-evaluative studies (Gadamer,1976; Maanen,1991; Patton,1990, Straus and Corbin,1990; Denzin and Lincoln,1994). The methods of grounded theory, Actor network theory and diffusion theory were investigated and documented. As a consequence, the combination of qualitative and quantitative methods or mix-blend, a methodological eclecticism is perhaps more acceptable than methodological purism. According to Paille’ (1996), quasi-qualitative methods can be distinguished from qualitative methods in that the latter aim to reconstruct and comprehend lived experience (meaning) stored in a certain way in texts whereas the former methods concentrate on the form of the material to be analyzed and strive for some kind of measurement. It is during the structuralists effervescence of the 1960s in France’s sociological context that numerous quasi-qualitative approaches were developed for adoption into different strands of research. The following lists few of the examples:

  • Niklas Luhman’s systems theory in the cognitive sciences, cultural and media studies influenced by North American post-structuralism; Baudrillard’s hyper-structuralist simulacra theory,  Levi-Strauss’ mathematical equations (1958,p.282) and Pêcheux’s algorithms (1969).
  • Glaser and Strauss (1967,pp.103-105) in their now famous introduction to constant comparative analysis briefly describes analytic induction that involves generating theory that emphasizes the generating function approach without testing thus the term grounded theory.  The theory produced by analytic induction is universal, precise and limited that’s why Glaser and Strauss’ approach involves constant comparison with properties as processes, types, consequences, dimensions and conditions.
  • The bricolage approach was termed by Claude Levi-Strauss for the pieced-together practices that provide solutions to the problem in a concrete situation. Bricolage employs the methods and theories of various disciplines when needed to understand the material in question providing a meta-analysis of the project.

This method was used in the computer simulation modeling of the proposed design of the food dehydrator and is also current in the computer modeling research method.
Research Design Rationale

The heuristic-technoscience approach in the secondary analysis method includes the following processes: initial engagement (in the study of food dehydration), immersion in the technological processes; incubation, and illumination to the different food dehydration methods; explication and creative synthesis to arrive at a proposed design.

Secondary data were used in the analysis to inform, confirm and constrain the mathematical interpretation and subsequently the design of the food dehydrator and the accompanying process steps in dehydration.
An overview of the diffusion theory and its application in this dissertation provides a framework for examining how diffusion theory can be applied to the adoption of food dehydration craft technology. Disciplines ranging from agriculture to management which includes education to marketing have used diffusion theory to increase the adoption of innovative ideas, methods and products. Everett M. Rogers (1995), the best known scholar in the area of diffusion research who wrote the book Diffusion of Innovations (4th Ed,2003), is the most often cited work dealing with diffusion. As Rogers (2003) points out, diffusion is not the single encompassing theory but several theoretical perspectives, a meta-theory related to the overall concept of diffusion. Rogers (1997) defines diffusion as the process by which innovations are introduced and communicated through certain channels over time among members of a social system.

Rogers’ definition contains four elements that are present in the diffusion of innovation process. The four main elements are:

  1. Innovation – an idea, practices, or objects that is perceived as knew by an individual or other unit of adoption.
  2. Communication channels – the means by which messages get from one individual to another.
  3. Time – the three time factors are:
    (a) innovation-decision process
    (b) relative time with which an innovation is adopted by an individual or group.
    (c) innovation’s rate of adoption.
  4. Social system – a set of interrelated units that are engaged in joint problem solving to accomplish a common goal and the education field is one social system.

An innovation is an idea, practice or object that is perceived to be new by an individual and communication is a process in which participants create and share information with one another to reach a common goal (Rogers,2003). This diffusion research focuses on five elements as shown by the conceptual model: a) the characteristics of an innovation as a new learning concept; b) the teachers or learners that consider adopting the concept; c) the characteristics of the individuals that may likely adopt an innovative method or process who are the teachers and other learners, they who are open to new ways of delivering knowledge; d) the consequences for a social sector that is added knowledge and new practice paradigm in education; and e) communication channels used to process the information to flow through networks – through the teachers and other learners.
In diffusion theory terms, teachers as potential adopters are influenced in several ways. Firstly, the assumed shared values of teachers as being caring educators, wanting the best for his/her students and secondly, implicitly to improve their teaching approach and infuse innovative methods in learning concepts.
Hence much of research literature concerned with change and innovation in education and other related fields has been strongly informed and influenced by the tenets of diffusion theory. Typically applied to the study of technology based change, diffusion theory is consistent with many of the commonly used frameworks that account for change in education.

research methodology

The instructional philosophy and goal in diffusion theory as applied to education is similar to those applied in the management of an organization with the end view of change or introduction of a better product or system personified by the teachers and their students as envisioned by the education establishment.

Cause and Effect Analysis in Philippine Education
The present research applies the root cause analysis to the problem besetting the Makabayan learning area which is a reflection of today’s Philippine education and uses the Ishikawa diagram or fishbone diagram due to its appearance after its originator, Kaoru Ishikawa. The “Effect” is a desirable or undesirable situation produced by a system of causes which becomes the ISSUE. The causes are grouped into four basic categories which, in the field of education, constitute the equipment, policies, procedures and the people. The fish bone diagram basically explains the causes of the problem that the Makabayan subject was and will continually confront until there is a clear delineation of what the learning area wants to impart to its learners, the students and their teachers.

thesis methodologyprepared and submitted by MARY ROSE FLORENCE S. COBAR

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Problems with Thesis Statement

Thesis statement is the heart of every essay because it states the main idea of the essay. It serves as a main idea or central message to the reader. Usually, a thesis statement is a one to two sentences that communicate the man idea and argument to the readers; there are rules to follow in order to have a right thesis statement. It should tell the reader what the document or essay is all about.

The following are some common errors or mistakes in writing a thesis statement:

thesis statement

– Weak thesis statement
A weak thesis statement has no claim and it is also obviously statement of fact.

– Too broad topic
Thesis statement should not be too broad because the writer may not discuss all points presented. Topic should be narrowed down to become more specific. Argument should be supported by enough evidence to support your claim.

– Not arguable topic
Thesis statement should be debatable. If thesis statement is not arguable, the thesis or essay becomes weakened and it will lack the purpose and direction. It should be strong argument.

– Too specific topic
Thesis statement should not be too specific because there is no enough information to support your claim.

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Thesis Proposal Outline

Thesis proposal is written to solve a problem and describe the solution to this problem and explain the type of research being used. It should be well written and well research.

Thesis stthesis proposal outlineructure will slightly vary depending on the subject matter of the thesis and the area of the study. Below is an example of Thesis Proposal Outline:


  • Title Page – It is the first page of your thesis which contains the lay out of what the thesis is all about with school you are representing, your mentors and your course. It has specific layout with signed by the mentors/
  • Abstract – This section should be very short with no more than 200 words but it should provides key statement to the thesis with brief introduction, summary that address the issue and possible implications of the work. It contains the brief summary on what was studied as well as findings of the study.
  • Table of Contents – It contains the outline of your thesis proposal with the corresponding page number. It is not required if your thesis proposal is only two pages long.
  • Introduction – It should capture the reader’s interest by including useful information.
  • Thesis Statement – It states the thesis and clarifies the hypothesis or theory that you want to prove with the thesis. It will give the reader to understand the scope of your overall thesis paper.
  • Methodology – It provides everything you did to attain your conclusion or hypothesis. It contains the approach such as the procedures you used. It includes the calculations, equipment, graphs and other information.
  • Results and Discussion – It presents the results that come up and draw up conclusion in connection to the research you have done. It includes both negative and positive findings. It contains your observation and interpretations of the results and how you interpret your findings. You have to detail some of preliminary findings.
  • Time Table – It discuss here the activities to do until your thesis project is complete. You can use a table to list the stages or steps including any deadlines as well as the challenges you face.
  • Implication of Research – It includes any new knowledge that comes up as well as any implication or problems find during the research.
  • Bibliography – It provides the list of references and citations through the work.

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Sample Thesis Acknowledgement


This dissertation would not have been possible without the guidance and the help of several individuals who in one way or another contributed and extended their valuable assistance in the preparation and completion of this study.

First and foremost, my utmost gratitude to Dr. Nilo L. Rosas, President of the Philippine Normal University whose sincerity and encouragement I will never forget. Dr. Rosas has been my inspiration as I hurdle all the obstacles in the completion this research work.

Dr. Norma J. Manaloto, former Head of the Department of Educational Management, Measurement and Evaluation, who until her day of retirement had kind concern and consideration regarding my academic requirements.

Dr. Alice D. Dioquino, for her unselfish and unfailing support as my dissertation adviser;

Engr. Alex A. Santos, co-adviser to Dr. Dioquino, for his patience and steadfast encouragement to complete this study;

Dr. Danilo K. Villena, Head of the Department of Education acknowledgement sampleManagement and Measurement, for the moral support despite his just being newly appointed;

Dr. Angelita D. Romero, Dean of the College of Education, for the insights she has shared;

Dr. Florentina L. Gorospe, Dr. Jose Rizal Sanchez and Dr. Rebecca C. Nueva-Espa?a for their inputs especially in the curriculum part of this study. They have shared valuable insights in the relevance of the study to basic education not just in the technology sector.

The staff of the PNU President’s Office especially Ms. Didi, Vic and Noel for being accommodating to our queries likewise the secretary of the Educational Management Department Chair and her student assistant for all the help.

Dr. Generosa Eligio, Principal of the CLSU Science High School and Engr. Donald Mateo of the Bureau of Post Harvest Research Extension, Nueva Ecija, for their expertise. Despite the distance, they have painstakingly e-mailed the information I needed.

The UST ME graduates namely the Andaya group and Emas group for the literature such as catalogues and journals needed that came all the way from Nueva Ecija;

Allan Valera of Santo Tomas E-Services Providers for the assistance on how to use the software needed for my presentation;

The Administrators of the Faculty of Engineering University of Santo Tomas, for their untiring effort in encouraging the teaching staff to pursue professional growth. Likewise the staff of the Dean’s Office for their relaying every communication sent in my behalf.

Mr. Edwin G. Antonio of the UST CAD-Engineering for re-editing the electronic version of this dissertation for consistent pagination prior to printing of the required number of hard copies.

Alex Roland Realco, Jr. of the Mechanical Engineering Laboratory I for helping out in sorting and compilation of the printed copies.

My colleagues and staff in the Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering and Civil Engineering Departments for the use of facilities in the ME Lab, consultations in EE and moral support from CE.

Mechanical Engineering students who in one way or another were assistance especially when the system broke down during the course of usage.

Last but not the least, my family and the one above all of us, the omnipresent God, for answering my prayers for giving me the strength to plod on despite my constitution wanting to give up and throw in the towel, thank you so much Dear Lord.



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Thesis Statement Examples

Writing thesis statement is easy when you know how to do it. Your thesis statement should be debatable.  This must be something that people may have different views or opinions about the topic. If your thesis is accepted as fact, there is no need to encourage people to read your thesis.


Thesis should be specific and not too broad.  The more specific the more effective the argument will be and less evidence is needed.

The broader thesis needs more evidence and you will need to convince your reader that your position is right.thesis statement examples

The following are the example of thesis statement:

  1. Marijuana to be Legalized.
    Marijuana can be used to treat symptoms of cancer, glaucoma and epilepsy that’s why legalizing the use of Marijuana will have great benefit by giving physicians access to this lifesaving drug.
  2. Vaccinations should be Mandatory among Countries
    Some refuse to give their children a vaccination due to variety of reason including the side effects of these drugs. Vaccination against polic, rubella,  and mumps should be mandatory who wish to attend school to prevent and control the deadly infectious disease.
  3. School should Fight Bullying
    One of the problems that affects million of students of all races and classes is bullying.  In this case, school official should have the right to discipline students who engage in bullying or cyberbullying without fear of punishment to decrease the incidence of cyberbully-related suicide attempts.
  4. Filipinos should Limits Regular Consumption of Fast Food.
    Filipinos nowadays is busy preparing foods so it ends up of dining their families to fast food chains.  As we all know fast food contains unhealthy ingredients that can affect our health.

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Tips to Finish your Thesis

It is easy to start a thesis but it is hard to finish. I know someone who is excited in writing his thesis for the first month, but after sometime, he feels bored and wants to quit. Here are the following tips to finish your thesis.

  1. Read then write first. Your graduation is depends on the success of your thesis so you must be prepared your self to read and research for the topic that interest you. The longer you delay your writing, the more difficult to start the process.
  2. Spend time for reading, researching and writing. Don’t stop writing. Always keeps your mind working anDSC06433d your project is moving. You must produce a thesis with complete paragraph and chapters so keep on writing and studying.
  3. Rewrite and rewrite. Writing continually can only happen if you are not perfectionist. We are discouraged because we need to have a final draft. Get your all thoughts in paper and plan to go back and fix awkward sentences, poor grammar, poor word choices and any inappropriate words. Keep in mind that rewriting is part of the writing process.
  4. Move to next section if you stuck to one section. Developing a successful thesis will require you to move around when you get stuck. But of course, avoiding the habit of skipping difficult task every now and then.
  5. Don’t walk away if you find difficult. I do not mean to force you to write but you should deal tough section. Sit in your chair and do something until you make some changes. Later on, you will be amazed that you already finish your thesis.
  6. Stay on task. Give enough time for your reading, writing, researching and studying and you will be surprised

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Thesis Statement Writing Tips

A thesis statement is serves as a summary of the argument in your paper. It should states the main idea and tells your reader the importance of the subject matter. It is usually a single sentence that presents an argument to the reader.


thesis statement

The following are some of thesis statement writing tips

  1. The reader of your thesis statement should understand your claim by using simple words. It should give a direction to the paper.
  2. Your thesis statement should be supportive by proof or evidence such as evidence from a text or research. It is not merely a fact. The reader should convince to continue reading the paper.
  3. Your thesis statement should narrow down from a very broad topic. Your claims should be specific.
  4. Your thesis statement should be arguable.
  5. Your thesis statement should be relevant.

Basic Ways to Write a Thesis Statement

  1. Know your topic. If you will choose a topic, it should something you know and learn about it. Of course, it is hard to write a topic that you know nothing about. Choose a topic that you are interested so that you will motivate yourself to continue working with your thesis.
  2. Limit your topic. You should limit your topic to a specific area. It should not be too broad that you will spend a long year round to research for your topic.
  3. Brainstorming. You can take a piece of paper and write down different ideas that come to your mind and discover new ideas that are connected to each other. Using these ideas you can now create your thesis statement.

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Quick Thesis Tips

A thesis is a document submitted as requirement in order to graduate. It involves a lot of research in order to prove a statement. It should supported by evidence.

  • In writing a thesis statement, you should determine what kind of paper you are writing whether it is analytical paper, expository paper, or argumentative paper so that it makes easy for you to develop your thesis statement.DSC05652
  • Thesis statement should be specific
  • You can find a model thesis that will serve as your thesis template for the layout and structure of your thesis
  • Make a timetable to stick to it no matter what, It will serve as you guides to know the progress and status of your thesis
  • Write an outline or chapter in order to organize your thesis.

Below is a sample thesis chapter:

  1. Title Page – It serves as opening page which include relevant information about your thesis
  2. Thesis Abstract – It includes the short summary which includes the background, findings and methodology
  3. Contents – It contains the list of chapters and figures included in your thesis
  4. Thesis Background – The rationale of your thesis
  5. Review of Literature – The summary of literature
  6. Methodology – Describe the methodology used in your thesis
  7. Data Analysis – Provide the technique used in analyzing the research data
  8. Discussion – Contains conclusion
  9. Bibliography – Provide list of references used in your research
  10. Appendices  – Contains the additional materials used

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Sample Architectural Project

Sample Architectural Firm Profile

Project: Resort World Manila

Project Definition Phase

In this case the firm should be able to define what the owner wants to build so that we can able to give the requirements of this particular period. And when the owner gave the requirements the firm should be able to collect data’s about this project. Be able to take some surveys about this project. For you to recommend to your client if this project will be worthy to build. As the firm collects the data or information about this project, the firm should study the requirements and be able to revise the requirements into Architectural project, the firm should study the requirements and be able to revise the requirements into Architectural program. After that the firm should give an initial project construction cost.

Schematic Design Phase

From the project definition phase the firm should prepare a schematic design study about the said project. First the firm should evaluate the owner’s budget, schedule, program, project site and the propose methods of project deliveries. Then the firm should prepare the initial working drawings that contain specifications and the general condition of the project for the owner’s approval. Then after that be able to give the statement of the probable project construction cost based on current cost parameters.

Design Development Phase

From the upper information’s about the project the firm should start how this project will be solved in the most high quality and service to be given by the firm to the owner. The firm should prepare the complete set of working drawings. It includes the general conditions of the project and the specifications of the materials to be used in the project. And be able to outline or fixed the size of the specifications to know the type of materials, type of structural, type of electrical, type of mechanical, type of sanitary and type of electronics and communication system to be used in the project. After knowing be able to present it to the client and be able to update the Statement of the probable project construction cost.

Contact Document Phase

The firm should be able to prepare the complete Contract Documents consisting of detailed designs and construction drawings, setting forth in detail the word required for the architectural, structural, electrical, plumbing/sanitary, mechanical, electronic and communication works prepared by the Architect and the respective professionals involved.

Construction Phase

Makes decisions on all claims of the owner and contractors on all matters relating to the execution and progress of work or the interpretation of The Contract Documents. Prepares change orders, gathers and turns over to the owner written guarantees required of the Contractor and Sib-Contractors. Makes periodic visits to the project site to familiarize him with the general progress and quality of work and to ascertain that the work is proceeding in accordance with the Contract Documents. The Architect shall not be required to make exhaustive or continuous 8-hour on-site supervision to check on the quality of the work involved and shall not be held responsible for the Contractor’s failure to carry out the Construction work in accordance with the Contract Documents. During such project site visits and on the basis of his observations, he shall report to the Client defects and deficiencies noted in the work of Contractors, and shall condemn work found failing to conform to the Contract Documents. Determines the amount owing and due to the Contractor and issues corresponding Certificates for Payment for such amounts based on his observations and the Contractor’s Applications for Payment. These certificates will constitute a certification to the Client that the work has progressed to the state indicated and that to his best knowledge, the quality of work performed by the Contractor is in accordance with the Contract Documents.

The Architect shall conduct the necessary inspection to determine the date of substantial and final completion and issue the final Certificate of Payment to the Contractor. Should more extensive inspection or full-time (8-hour) construction supervision be required by the Client, a separate full-time supervisor shall be hired and agreed upon by the owner and the architect subject to the conditions provided in the UAP Document on Full-Time supervision. When the architect is requested by the owner to do the full time supervision, his services and fees shall be covered separately in conformance with the applicable and supervision, his services and fees shall be covered separately in conformance with the applicable and appropriate UAP Document.

Scope of Pre-Design Services

Pre-Design Services cover a broad line of architectural services ranging from initial problem identification to activities that would allow the Architect to initially conceptualize an array of architectural and allied solutions. The Pre-Design Services nominally include consultation, pre-feasibility studies, feasibility studies, site selection and analysis, site utilization and land-use studies, architectural research, architectural programming, space planning, space management studies, value management, design brief preparation, promotional services and other related activities.


When a Client calls upon the Architect to give oral or written advice and direction, to attend conferences, to make evaluations and appraisals regarding a contemplated project and similar activities, the Architect renders valuable inputs whether or not the Client pursues the project.

Pre-Feasibility Studies

These Preliminary studies involve the procurement, analysis and use of secondary information gathered for the project to aid the Client in early decision-making. They represent the Architect’s initial assessment of a project’s soundness, allowing the Client to promptly explore available/readily identifiable directions/options. Researched/processed/validated secondary data are generally used for such studies e.g. electronic, print, etc.

Feasibility Studies

Detailed analysis of the project based on pre-feasibility studies will determine the viability of a proposed development. The studies will set the project against present and future trends to forecast how it will perform over time. This requires primary data gathering and analysis.

Site Selection and Analysis

This entails the formulation of side criteria, assistance to the Client in site evaluation as well as analysis to determine the most appropriate site/s for a proposed project or building program.

Site Utilization and Land-Use Studies

The detailed analysis of the site involves the identification of a site’s development potentials through the proper utilization of land. The analysis covers the context of the site as well as that of its surrounding environment and the development


Glennard Marcelo

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