A common format in writing the research paper is to start the preliminaries. Abstract, Table of Contents, Title Page, Acknowledgement, List of Tables and List of Figures.
The researcher provides the readers with a “bird’s eye view” of the research either in the short form (100-175 words) or in long form (500 – 1,000 words).
The abstract shows the following:
1. A brief discussion of the background and the objectives of the problem.
2. A statement of the problem.
3. A brief discussion of the research design
4. The salient findings, conclusions and recommendations
1. Title of the report
2. Full name of the researcher
3. The subject for which the research is presented
4. The college and department of the institution to which the research is presented
5. The month and year in which the research is submitted
He mentions the people who guided him in the completion of the research
Table of Contents
He lists the chapter headings of the research in this section with the following:
2. Chapter number
3. Chapter titles and page citation
4. Sub-headings of main headings and page citations
5. Bibliography and page citations
6. Appedix (ces) and page citations
List of Tables
He substantiates the presentation of the captions of the tables used with the following:
1. Number of tables
2. Caption of titles
3. Pages in the research where the tables are located
List of Figures and Illustrations
He includes this section only if graphs, charts and other illustrations are used in the research
The list shows the following parts:
1. Number of figures/illustrations
2. Captions or titles
3. Pages in the research where the figures/illustrations appear
The Text of the Research
To reflect on the researcher’s integrity, resourcefulness and creativity, the researcher follows the procedures systematically. He uses reliable data to come up with a well-organized written research.
He presents the following
2. Review of Related Literature
4. Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data
5. Summary, Conclusions, Recommendations and Implications
He presents the following in this section:
1. Background of the Study (This includes the theoretical and conceptual framework)
2. Statement of the Problem
3. Statement of the Hypothesis (Optional)
4. Theoretical and Conceptual Framework (These are included in the Background of the Study)
5. Definition of Terms
6. Importance of the Study
7. Scope and Delimitation of the Study
Review of Related Literature
He presents what has and has not been researched on the problem by explaining the basis of the theoretical framework.
He considers the following points:
1. He includes only studies with related objectives, methods or findings.
2. He clarifies the interrelationships between the studies reviewed by pointing out their weaknesses and strategies.
3. He compares and contrasts the studies reviewed and the study being undertaken.
He presents the procedures in data gathering by including the following:
1. Design of the study
2. Variables and measures
3. Sources of Data
6. Treatment of research and data
Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data
To answer research questions or to test the hypothesis of the research, he breaks down data into constituent pars. He presents, analyzes, and interprets data or evidence sequentially because the presentation explains the meaning of the data
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
He summarizes findings to answer the research questions.. From the collected data or evidences he forms conclusions or generalizations. From the academic discipline presented by the problem .he makes recommendation and implication and presents these for further research and for policy implementation.
The Reference Materials
Campbell (1982) states the functions of reference materials as:
1. Allow the reader to obtain the scope of the investigation behind the report
2. Permit the reader to locate easily full bibliographical information for materials cited in the text.
3. Provide the reader with a foundation, with a prepared listing of words which he can use for his own research.
* The text above is taken from “Technical Writing Revised Edition by Corazon C. Obnamia, Mariano S. Dela Cruz and Margaret S. Aquino