Research Methodology Sample

CHAPTER III
Research Methodology

Quasi-Qualitative Research

The methods evolved during the initial research following the evaluation of literature and new learning concept in quasi-qualitative research and secondary analysis methods. The literature collected enlightened the researcher’s understanding of practical and effective methods for researching educational phenomena in a technical life. New concepts in quasi-qualitative and interpretative approaches enabled the researcher’s adaptation of appropriate methods for the unique focus of this study.

The problems addressed by this study have been pointed to by research and thinking in system design bricolage, diffusion theory and secondary analysis anchored in grounded theory, with the appendices providing the background summary of said methods mentioned, to arrive at the design aspect of the subject matter which is food dehydration craft technology.

This summary of the combined research methods to acquire data inductively, evaluate it in context and to generate the approaches deem to fit the conceptual framework of the study.

The study drew a combination of approaches: heuristic-technoscience with use of bricolage, diffusion theory and secondary analysis under grounded theory precepts.
Description of Methodology

Prior to conducting a research design, an initial theoretical model was developed using heuristics from prior research and technical experience. The initial model integrated the ideas and constructions generated during the first phase. The initial research activity reviewed the literature and developed researched questions. The literature review spanned the body of journals, abstracts, relevant book sections and references from articles concerning Philippines’ secondary school education in comparison to its Asian neighbors and  across the works of food dehydration process, and industrial design disciplines.
Methodology review was conducted across the qualitative and quantitative research literature starting from phenomenology and hermeneutics-evaluative studies (Gadamer,1976; Maanen,1991; Patton,1990, Straus and Corbin,1990; Denzin and Lincoln,1994). The methods of grounded theory, Actor network theory and diffusion theory were investigated and documented. As a consequence, the combination of qualitative and quantitative methods or mix-blend, a methodological eclecticism is perhaps more acceptable than methodological purism. According to Paille’ (1996), quasi-qualitative methods can be distinguished from qualitative methods in that the latter aim to reconstruct and comprehend lived experience (meaning) stored in a certain way in texts whereas the former methods concentrate on the form of the material to be analyzed and strive for some kind of measurement. It is during the structuralists effervescence of the 1960s in France’s sociological context that numerous quasi-qualitative approaches were developed for adoption into different strands of research. The following lists few of the examples:

  • Niklas Luhman’s systems theory in the cognitive sciences, cultural and media studies influenced by North American post-structuralism; Baudrillard’s hyper-structuralist simulacra theory,  Levi-Strauss’ mathematical equations (1958,p.282) and Pêcheux’s algorithms (1969).
  • Glaser and Strauss (1967,pp.103-105) in their now famous introduction to constant comparative analysis briefly describes analytic induction that involves generating theory that emphasizes the generating function approach without testing thus the term grounded theory.  The theory produced by analytic induction is universal, precise and limited that’s why Glaser and Strauss’ approach involves constant comparison with properties as processes, types, consequences, dimensions and conditions.
  • The bricolage approach was termed by Claude Levi-Strauss for the pieced-together practices that provide solutions to the problem in a concrete situation. Bricolage employs the methods and theories of various disciplines when needed to understand the material in question providing a meta-analysis of the project.

This method was used in the computer simulation modeling of the proposed design of the food dehydrator and is also current in the computer modeling research method.
Research Design Rationale

The heuristic-technoscience approach in the secondary analysis method includes the following processes: initial engagement (in the study of food dehydration), immersion in the technological processes; incubation, and illumination to the different food dehydration methods; explication and creative synthesis to arrive at a proposed design.

Secondary data were used in the analysis to inform, confirm and constrain the mathematical interpretation and subsequently the design of the food dehydrator and the accompanying process steps in dehydration.
An overview of the diffusion theory and its application in this dissertation provides a framework for examining how diffusion theory can be applied to the adoption of food dehydration craft technology. Disciplines ranging from agriculture to management which includes education to marketing have used diffusion theory to increase the adoption of innovative ideas, methods and products. Everett M. Rogers (1995), the best known scholar in the area of diffusion research who wrote the book Diffusion of Innovations (4th Ed,2003), is the most often cited work dealing with diffusion. As Rogers (2003) points out, diffusion is not the single encompassing theory but several theoretical perspectives, a meta-theory related to the overall concept of diffusion. Rogers (1997) defines diffusion as the process by which innovations are introduced and communicated through certain channels over time among members of a social system.

Rogers’ definition contains four elements that are present in the diffusion of innovation process. The four main elements are:

  1. Innovation – an idea, practices, or objects that is perceived as knew by an individual or other unit of adoption.
  2. Communication channels – the means by which messages get from one individual to another.
  3. Time – the three time factors are:
    (a) innovation-decision process
    (b) relative time with which an innovation is adopted by an individual or group.
    (c) innovation’s rate of adoption.
  4. Social system – a set of interrelated units that are engaged in joint problem solving to accomplish a common goal and the education field is one social system.

An innovation is an idea, practice or object that is perceived to be new by an individual and communication is a process in which participants create and share information with one another to reach a common goal (Rogers,2003). This diffusion research focuses on five elements as shown by the conceptual model: a) the characteristics of an innovation as a new learning concept; b) the teachers or learners that consider adopting the concept; c) the characteristics of the individuals that may likely adopt an innovative method or process who are the teachers and other learners, they who are open to new ways of delivering knowledge; d) the consequences for a social sector that is added knowledge and new practice paradigm in education; and e) communication channels used to process the information to flow through networks – through the teachers and other learners.
In diffusion theory terms, teachers as potential adopters are influenced in several ways. Firstly, the assumed shared values of teachers as being caring educators, wanting the best for his/her students and secondly, implicitly to improve their teaching approach and infuse innovative methods in learning concepts.
Hence much of research literature concerned with change and innovation in education and other related fields has been strongly informed and influenced by the tenets of diffusion theory. Typically applied to the study of technology based change, diffusion theory is consistent with many of the commonly used frameworks that account for change in education.

research methodology

The instructional philosophy and goal in diffusion theory as applied to education is similar to those applied in the management of an organization with the end view of change or introduction of a better product or system personified by the teachers and their students as envisioned by the education establishment.

Cause and Effect Analysis in Philippine Education
The present research applies the root cause analysis to the problem besetting the Makabayan learning area which is a reflection of today’s Philippine education and uses the Ishikawa diagram or fishbone diagram due to its appearance after its originator, Kaoru Ishikawa. The “Effect” is a desirable or undesirable situation produced by a system of causes which becomes the ISSUE. The causes are grouped into four basic categories which, in the field of education, constitute the equipment, policies, procedures and the people. The fish bone diagram basically explains the causes of the problem that the Makabayan subject was and will continually confront until there is a clear delineation of what the learning area wants to impart to its learners, the students and their teachers.

thesis methodologyprepared and submitted by MARY ROSE FLORENCE S. COBAR

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Thesis Methodology Sample

Researchers are often taught to master only two types of methods in general terms and so become comfortable with either quantitative or qualitative analysis but not both. The result is the two methods are seldom combined and their respective strengths are ignored by adherents of each approach (Casebeer & Verhoef,1997).

A.    Research Design

The basic research method used in this study is the quasi-qualitative source genre under a trans-disciplinary approach and a diffusion inductive theme. The quasi-qualitative research approach involved interpretive procedures and numerically based representation of data in the secondary analysis method. Diffusion of Innovation theory (Rogers,2003) was used to represent the how, why and at what rate can innovation or idea/s can be adopted and diffuse to its intended target area.

B.    Procedures

Research data were sourced, collected and collated accordingly before secondary analysis method was applied in the design of the food dehydrator for its intended user, the secondary school teachers.  Quasi-qualitative source analysis was used in the evaluation of the Makabayan learning area and thereby anchored its research for the infusion of food dehydration craft technology in the Secondary School level.

The methodology of this body of research is based on the premise of its functionality to the needs of the targeted stakeholders, the learners and through them, the community.

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Sample Methodology for Pico Hydro

This chapter refers to the theoretical analysis of the method appropriate to a pico hydro field of study or to the body of methods and principle particular to a branch of knowledge.

It is nothing more than a simple set of methods or procedure, or it may refer to the rationale and the philosophical assumption that underlie a particular study relative to the scientific method.  Specifically, this chapter includes the Gantt chart, flow chart and the scope of work of the project study.

4.1 Gantt chart

4.1.1 Pico hydro system planning

This stage is the most critical stage in this project as it determines the feasibility and achievement of water available from the water flow inside the penstock, used turbine and generator type and capacity, capacity of electrical load to be supplied by the pico hydro system and the cost of developing the project and operating the system.

4.1.2  Site Selection

There are thousands of sites where people have a source of falling but do not have electricity.  For these rural communities, pico hydro is the lowest cost technology for generating electricity.  Lighting from this source is cheaper than using kerosene lamps, and safer too.  There are three basic types of location which are suitable for conducting a study regarding the energy potential of available in Maluya Central, Balanga City, Bataan is suitable for the implantation of the study regarding the generation of electrical energy.

Pico hydro power generate a limited power, because of that, is oriented to reduced application as small grid or individual use.  According to this, to avoid high grid expenses and power losses, the site should not be too far from end users.  As a standard for 1 kw of power, the distance should not be more than 2km in this project, the distance if the site into the end user is 150m obtaining 240W which is appropriate for the study.

4.1.3    Measuring Flow

The flow of water in a river should be enough throughout a year, extreme flows can affect to the system performance, and the excess flow must be controlled.  The measurement of the flow should be at least be done twice a year, during the lowest season (February- May) ad also in the highest season (end of September – beginning of October.

The flow of water on the desired locations was determined using practical methods.  The water flow can be located approximately by knowing the water speed.  By dropping a left upstream and reading the time it takes to travel the measured distance.  This practical approach of measuring the speed of water is done exactly 15 times.

4.1.4    Testing and set up

This includes set up and of pico hydro to chosen site in sitio catmon, diwa, pilar, bataan.  Pico hydro set up typically are run of stream, meaning that dams are not used , but rather pipes divert some of the flow, drop this down a gradient, and through the turbine before being exhausted back to the stream.

The two vital factors to consider are the flow and the head of the stream or river.  The flow is the volume of water which can be captured and redirected to run the turbine generator, and the head is the distance the water will fall its way to the generator.

4.2    Flow chart

A flow chart shows the step by step process represent in boxes of various kinds, and their order by connecting these with arrows, this diagrammatic representation can give a step by step solution to a given problem.  The process is stared with the selection of topic data, data gathering and data analysis, site investigation, canvassing of materials for the design, fabrication, measurement and calculation of the parameters present at the site, testing of the system and troubleshooting.  But if there is a point in a process wherein an error takes place, it is necessary to go back to troubleshooting, design and calculation of parameters.

4.3    Input parameters

Flow rate – amount of water that flows that passes the turbine in a given time, measure in the liter/second.

Head – the height of water surface flowing into the turbine down to the water surface below, measure in m(m), inches (in), of feet (ft)

Hydraulic pressure – relationship between the force you apply and the result you get.  It is the way a liquid acts in a closed system of pipes and cylinder.  The action of liquid under such condition is somewhat different from its behavior in open container or in lakes, rivers, or ocean.  You cannot compress most liquid into a smaller space.  Liquid don’t give the way air when you apply pressure, nor do liquids expand when you removed pressure.

4.4    Output parameters

Electric power – amount of work done by an electric current in a unit time.  It is considered a rate at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit.  The SI unit of power is the watt.  When electric current flows in a circuit, it can transfer energy to do mechanical or thermodynamic work.  Devices convert electrical energy into many useful forms such as heat (electric heater), light (light bulbs), motion (electrical motors) and sound (loudspeaker).

Power house – the rate at which electrical energy is transferred by a circuit.  In physics, it is the rate at which work is performed or energy is converted.

Voltage – it is commonly used as a short name for electrical potential difference.  The voltage between two points is a short name for the electrical driving force that could determine an electric current between those points.  Basically, it is equal to energy per unit charge.

Electric potential energy – potential energy can be defined as the capacity for doing work arises from position or configuration.  In the electrical case, a charge will exert a force on any other charge and potential energy arises from any collection of charges.  It is also a potential energy associated with the conservative coulomb forces within a defined system of point charges.

Ampere – in practical terms, it is a measure of the amount of electric charge passing a point per unit time.  Around 6.24 x 10 to the 18 electrons or coulomb passing a given point each second constitutes one ampere.

4.5    Water source and energy potential

A run of river has been chosen for the pico hydro system due to the fact that it has a high head, suitable flow rate, and is conveniently located near the main.  Although the stream is being used for irrigation, there are decreasing occurrences of drop failure due to having intensive irrigation schemes for the execution of the supply of water.

All measurements were taken during the dry season (late January).  Using the float method, the flow of the river was determined to be around 0..35 m3 (351/s).  Effectively, this is the amount of water not currently being used by the community.  Practically, it would be possible to utilize the entire 35 1/s flow since it is a run of river scheme in which all water will be returned to the stream.

The available head and flow is enough to provide for the energy needs of one household.  As such, there is range of possibilities for the combination of head and flows that would be sufficient for the system.  The final decision was determined based on the most convenient location for civil works and the power source.

A proposed location for the intake was along the river.  This provides a gross head of 1m between the penstock intake and the powerhouse based on the requirement of the turbine, a flow rate of between 12 and 15 liters/s will be used (approximately 45% of the low season flow).  This will ensure the required flow is available year round, in addition to preserving the aesthetic quality of the waterfall.

4.6    Civil works

Since the stream has more than flow to power the system even during the dry season, only a low level of civil works will be required.  A small collection area was submerged.  Although there is limited amount of sediment in the stream, the collection area will also allow any sediment to settle before entering the intake.  To further ensure the intake is submerged during the dry season, a small diversion could be constructed on the shelf using stone and mortar.

4.7    Transmission lines

The household is located 100 meter from the proposed power source, which will be required 50 meters of transmission cable 3.5 mm2 cooper wire THWN/THHN service drop wire was in connecting transmission and is locally available and suitable for a 118W system.

Excerpt from the Project Study for Rural Electrification by Jerome dela Cruz, Kenneth Aquino, Wilgem Regino Crespo, John Andrew Molino and Rosauro Fernando Jr of BPSU.

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Construction of a Research Design

Components:

1.    Observations or Measures
2.    Treatments or Programs
3.    Groups
4.     Assignment to Group

Characteristics of Good Design

  • Theory-Grounded: Reflects the theories which are being investigated
  • Situational: Indicates the settings or conditions of the investigation
  • Feasible: Can be implemented
  • Redundant: Provides multiple processing particularly for validation
  • Efficient: Maintains a balance between redundancy and the tendency to over-design

Examples of Research Design

  1. Laboratory Experiments (JIS, ASTM, Euro, PNS, etc) and Regression Analysis
  2. Prototyping and Descriptive Statistics

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Methodology Sample

Researchers are often taught only two types of methods of approach, either quantitative where experimental genre is classified or qualitative often times at the exclusion of other probable combination of methods.

A. Research Design

The basic research method used in this study is a combination of approaches, experimental and participatory, the latter in a way there was a first hand interaction with the beneficiaries of the study prior to the design of the output product with the experimental phase to follow.

B. Procedures

The researchers interviewed the Aetas of sitio Mabilog in Bamban, Tarlac as to the agricultural produce as an aid to the study on the design approach. Research data was sourced, collected and collated accordingly before the design of the solar dehydrator for its intended users.

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