Sample Project Technical Feasibility

Energy Recovery Turbine Devices

Several devices have been designed and tested to recover the energy from the brine flow within SWRO.  The first ERD used was a turbine coupled to the centrifugal HPP (High-Pressure Pump) shaft.  Before the 1980s,  Francis turbine were applied but they were replaced by the Pelton wheel. The latter technology operates at higher efficiency in high-head applications such as large SWRO plants.  ERT’s have been widely accepted in large SWRO plants because of their reliability and proven efficiency, typically up to 88%.
The whole component efficiencies of a Pelton turbine.  ERD range from 70% to 90%.  The energy transfer efficiency of this kid of ERD is the product of the efficiencies of the nozzles (99%), the turbine (85%-90%) and the centrifugal HPP (75%-85%).  In conclusion, the peak efficiency of a Pelton turbine ERD could be estimated around 85% – 90%.
Another type of centrifugal ERD is the hydraulic turbocharger, which was used for small and medium capacity SWRO plants at the beginning of the 1990’s.  They are similar in operational concept to the Pelton turbine.  The turbocharger and the HPP are not directly connected, providing a degree of flexibility in the operation of these devices.  Also, turbochargers have a relatively small footprint and are easy to install but the overall efficiency of this ERD is typically 70-80%.

Energy Recovery Devices (Pressure Exchanger)
From the 1990s onward, several alternatives to centrifugal ERD have been designed and tested.  These kinds of devices use the principles of isobaric chambers for SWRO plants and are known as isobaric pressure exchangers.
The HPP size and its motor is substantially smaller than ERT configuration.  It should be more exactly to say that this kind of device saves energy instead of recovering energy as ERT.

There are several manufacturers of pressure exchanger devices nowadays.  ERI (PX), Calder (DWEER), RO Kinetic and KSB (SalTec DT), Danfoss (iSave) are the main manufacturers of this kind of equipment and are now competing for designing the best system.  Some optimized devices allow a real efficiency of energy from the brine stream to the feed flow of up to 97%.  Besides, the innovative ERDs for SWRO plants imply an enormous advance in the SEC reduction in this type of facilities. These devices obtain excellent SEC from 1.80 to 2.20 kWh/m in new medium capacity SWRO plants with piston HPP installed.
The Pressure Exchanger device transfer pressure from a high pressure stream to a low pressure stream in a ceramic rotor.  The rotor is fit into a sleeve between two end covers with precise clearances that, when filled with high pressure water, create an  almost frictionless hydrodynamic bearing.

Read More

Sample Architectural Project

Sample Architectural Firm Profile

Project: Resort World Manila

Project Definition Phase

In this case the firm should be able to define what the owner wants to build so that we can able to give the requirements of this particular period. And when the owner gave the requirements the firm should be able to collect data’s about this project. Be able to take some surveys about this project. For you to recommend to your client if this project will be worthy to build. As the firm collects the data or information about this project, the firm should study the requirements and be able to revise the requirements into Architectural project, the firm should study the requirements and be able to revise the requirements into Architectural program. After that the firm should give an initial project construction cost.

Schematic Design Phase

From the project definition phase the firm should prepare a schematic design study about the said project. First the firm should evaluate the owner’s budget, schedule, program, project site and the propose methods of project deliveries. Then the firm should prepare the initial working drawings that contain specifications and the general condition of the project for the owner’s approval. Then after that be able to give the statement of the probable project construction cost based on current cost parameters.

Design Development Phase

From the upper information’s about the project the firm should start how this project will be solved in the most high quality and service to be given by the firm to the owner. The firm should prepare the complete set of working drawings. It includes the general conditions of the project and the specifications of the materials to be used in the project. And be able to outline or fixed the size of the specifications to know the type of materials, type of structural, type of electrical, type of mechanical, type of sanitary and type of electronics and communication system to be used in the project. After knowing be able to present it to the client and be able to update the Statement of the probable project construction cost.

Contact Document Phase

The firm should be able to prepare the complete Contract Documents consisting of detailed designs and construction drawings, setting forth in detail the word required for the architectural, structural, electrical, plumbing/sanitary, mechanical, electronic and communication works prepared by the Architect and the respective professionals involved.

Construction Phase

Makes decisions on all claims of the owner and contractors on all matters relating to the execution and progress of work or the interpretation of The Contract Documents. Prepares change orders, gathers and turns over to the owner written guarantees required of the Contractor and Sib-Contractors. Makes periodic visits to the project site to familiarize him with the general progress and quality of work and to ascertain that the work is proceeding in accordance with the Contract Documents. The Architect shall not be required to make exhaustive or continuous 8-hour on-site supervision to check on the quality of the work involved and shall not be held responsible for the Contractor’s failure to carry out the Construction work in accordance with the Contract Documents. During such project site visits and on the basis of his observations, he shall report to the Client defects and deficiencies noted in the work of Contractors, and shall condemn work found failing to conform to the Contract Documents. Determines the amount owing and due to the Contractor and issues corresponding Certificates for Payment for such amounts based on his observations and the Contractor’s Applications for Payment. These certificates will constitute a certification to the Client that the work has progressed to the state indicated and that to his best knowledge, the quality of work performed by the Contractor is in accordance with the Contract Documents.

The Architect shall conduct the necessary inspection to determine the date of substantial and final completion and issue the final Certificate of Payment to the Contractor. Should more extensive inspection or full-time (8-hour) construction supervision be required by the Client, a separate full-time supervisor shall be hired and agreed upon by the owner and the architect subject to the conditions provided in the UAP Document on Full-Time supervision. When the architect is requested by the owner to do the full time supervision, his services and fees shall be covered separately in conformance with the applicable and supervision, his services and fees shall be covered separately in conformance with the applicable and appropriate UAP Document.

Scope of Pre-Design Services

Pre-Design Services cover a broad line of architectural services ranging from initial problem identification to activities that would allow the Architect to initially conceptualize an array of architectural and allied solutions. The Pre-Design Services nominally include consultation, pre-feasibility studies, feasibility studies, site selection and analysis, site utilization and land-use studies, architectural research, architectural programming, space planning, space management studies, value management, design brief preparation, promotional services and other related activities.


When a Client calls upon the Architect to give oral or written advice and direction, to attend conferences, to make evaluations and appraisals regarding a contemplated project and similar activities, the Architect renders valuable inputs whether or not the Client pursues the project.

Pre-Feasibility Studies

These Preliminary studies involve the procurement, analysis and use of secondary information gathered for the project to aid the Client in early decision-making. They represent the Architect’s initial assessment of a project’s soundness, allowing the Client to promptly explore available/readily identifiable directions/options. Researched/processed/validated secondary data are generally used for such studies e.g. electronic, print, etc.

Feasibility Studies

Detailed analysis of the project based on pre-feasibility studies will determine the viability of a proposed development. The studies will set the project against present and future trends to forecast how it will perform over time. This requires primary data gathering and analysis.

Site Selection and Analysis

This entails the formulation of side criteria, assistance to the Client in site evaluation as well as analysis to determine the most appropriate site/s for a proposed project or building program.

Site Utilization and Land-Use Studies

The detailed analysis of the site involves the identification of a site’s development potentials through the proper utilization of land. The analysis covers the context of the site as well as that of its surrounding environment and the development


Glennard Marcelo

Read More

Sample Methodology and Design


The major processes involved in Annual Website, namely opening Home page, reading on what’s new, accessing the CS Bits Page, information about our college, and accessing links such as Opening Home Page, Read on What’s New, Access the CS Bits Page, Access the Information about college, Access the links.

In the first process (opening the home page), you can avail with the following pages: What’s new, CS Bits Page, about our College, and links.  Upon opening, there you can see a banner displaying “Welcome to CompSci Website”.

In the second process (read on what’s new), the procedure is very simple.  You have one option, just to click on CompSci activities and there you go, you can see their activities covered by that school year.
In the third process (accessing the CS Bits Page), you can avail in the following pages: CompSci Faculty, CompSci Curriculum, ACSS Dept., and 2001 CompSci Graduates.

In the fourth process (accessing information about BHMC), it only display the information about our college.
In the last process (accessing on links), you can link to different sites like in the field of sports, entertainment / television and news and technology.

Materials Uses

–    Pentium III Personal Computer
–    At least 64Mb Hard Disk
–    HP Deskjet 8140C Printer

–    Microsoft FrontPage for System Integration
–    Corel Draw 8 for System Integration
–    Internet Explorer as the Application Software

Read More

Sample of Operational Definition

Access – The ability to locate, grains entry to, and use a directory, file or device on a computer system or over a network.

Chat – To communicate in real-time on a computer network using keyed messages.  A person chatiing with another person or group of people on the network keys in a message and wait for the other party to key in a response.  As one person keys in a message, the other participants can usually see the characters appear on their screen immediately.

Communication Protocol – A standard that defines the way in which data is passed between to or more pieces of computer equipment over a telephone line or other communication link.

Computer – A programmable machine that performs high speed processing of numbers, as well as of text, graphics, symbols and sound.
Download – To transfer a copy of a file from a central source to a peripheral device or computer.

Email address – The address to which an email message is sent.  An email usually takes the form of username@networkaddress.domain name; for example

Forms – Text fields, check boxes, scrolling text fields, and radio button elements allow the browsing visitor to submit information to the web site either through the database or directly to a predefined email address.

Graphic Images – Pictures or graphics can be used as links to take you to other web pages or sites.  Animated GIFs  (graphics that have multiple layers) can also provide for some rudimentary animations.  Background graphics display behind the text throughout the length and width of a Web page.

Home Page – The first screen containing information you see when you arrive at a World Wide Web Site. The home page usually contains general information about an organization, plus options or links to other sites.

HTML (Hypertext Mark Up Language) – A coding system used on a World Wide Web to format text and set up hyperlinks between documents.

HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)  – A client server protocol used on the World Wide Web to govern the transfer of data.

Hyperlink – Is represented as underlined text.  In a hypertext document, a cross-reference that takes you directly to another related document or to another location within the same document.

Hypertext – A format for presenting text that is heavily cross-referenced through hyperlinks.  A document presented in hypertext may have links to other documents.

Hypertext Links – Can be text or graphics that, when clicked, take the browsing visitor to other Web pages or sites, or to the Email address of the person to contact with comments or questions about the site.
Internet – A matrix of networks that interconnects millions of supercomputers, mainframes, workstations, personal computers, laptops and even pocket radios.  The networks that make up the internet all use a standard set of communications protocols, thus allowing computers with distinctive software and hardware to communicate.

Internet Explorer – A trademark for a World Wide Web browsers.  Internet explorer is provided free by Microsoft and runs on Microsoft Windows, Windows 95, Windows NT, and Macintosh computers.
IRC (Internet Relay Chart) – A network of Internet server’s world wide through which individual users can hold real time online conversations.  In an IRC, users can talk to each other as part of a group discussion on any of a number of specified topics.
ISP (Internet Service Provider) – An organization that provides other organizations or individuals with access to the Internet.  America Online and CompuServe are example of ISP’s.

Intranet – A private network that provides services similar to those found on the Internet.

Java – A trademark for a simple object-oriented programming language developed by Sun Microsystem.  Java is similar to C++ without some of the more complex features.  Java is designed to run over the Internet, and it provides a secure environment for writing and executing World Wide Web applications.

JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) – The standard algorithm for image compression. JPEG can compress color or black and white digital images using lossy compression.

Link – A connection between computers, devices, programs or files over which data is transmitted.

Lossy Compression – Data compression with some loss of information.  Lossy compression can occur, for example, when data is prepared for transmission over a relatively small bandwidth.  A common form of data that undergoes lossy compression is audio and video data and the data that is lost is usually fine-resolution data whose absence is not noticeable.

Multimedia Objects – This includes background music and video files.

Netscape Navigator – A trademark for a World Wide Web browser.  Netscape Navigator runs on many platforms, including UNIX, Microsoft Windows, Windows 95, Windows NT, and Macintosh computers.

Notepad. A desk accessory in the Microsoft Windows and Macintosh operating environments.  Notepad is a text editor that allows the user to jot down notes, wrote short memos and create and edit batch files.

Protocol – A standard procedure for regulating data transmission between computers or between devices such as modems.

Tables – Much like columns in a spreadsheet, tables let you line up text in rows and columns or allow you to control the placement of graphics on a page.

Text – Text is used on the web pages as content or as link to take you to other web pages or sites.

Web Boot Component – These are dynamic elements that change or are automatically displayed when a browsing visitor opens the page.

Web browser – A program, such as Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer, that allows the user to access hypertext links to different sites on the World WideWeb.

Webmaster – A person responsible for creating and maintaining a Web server site.

Webpage – A file on the World Wide Web that is accessible using a Web browser.

WWW (World Wide Web) An internet information server that uses hypertext as its primary navigation tool.  WWW utilities  HTTP for data transfer and documents may feature not just text but also multimedia elements such as graphics, audio and video.

Read More

Sample Purpose, Scope and Objective of the Project

Purpose of the Project

This study gives us an opportunity to have our Comp Sci Web page seen in the internet, to have our files shown through out the world.  The study also helps us boost our economy by letting people know that we can catch up with the advancing world.  It is a way of updating ourselves and enjoying the blessings that this new technology gives us.  We can upgrade our knowledge by being exposed in the world of computer and letting us know how to explore the internet and other computer aspects.  And the best significance of this study is that it makes life easier and lighten our burden.

Scope of the Project

The study is focused mainly on the designing of webpages, particularly a Computer Science WebPages, particularly a Computer Science WebPage where you can find information about the graduating students with the scanning and editing of his pictures.  This would include some features and activities that the ACSS had during the school year.  The scope will include a project in actual Internet making to enable actual testing to make sure of the preciseness of the project’s application.

Objectives of the Project

General Objective

To create and develop a system that will immediately access the information about the graduating students or the yearbook thru Website.

Specific Objectives

–    To construct and code programs that will access a yearbook
–    To test and debug the designed system

Read More

Sample Background of the Project

Yearly, Bataan Heroes Memorial College releases it Annual for Graduates.  It consists of different information about graduates same with faculty members.  It also includes the student’s achievement for school year.

Did you happen to see your elder’s brothers and sisters as well as your parents with their classical yearbook?  They had the difficulty of scanning book pages, working for them; they’re past activities and organizations.

So why be contented with this old style of yearbook when we can have a better and a viewer friendly one?

To reduce the above mentioned problems, the group designed Computer Science Web Page in the Internet or we can call it as an Annual Website.

Today, Internet is very popular; using the internet is a lot like using a computer for anything.  You sit in front of the monitor and look at words and pictures; you use the keyboard to type words, commands and other information; and you use the mouse to click on particular objects and to make selections.

The web is an information delivery system.  You can use the web to look at many different types of information and to access a variety of services.  Like all internet resources, the web is based on a client/server system.  You use a client program, called a browser, to access the information on web servers ( of which there are millions around the world).  The two most widely used browsers are Internet Explorer (from Microsoft ) and Netscape.

Information on the web is organized into web pages (although they are not real pages like in a book).  A website is a collection of related web pages.

Web pages can contain all types of information including text (characters, graphics, pictures and photographs) and multimedia (animation, video and sounds).  The defining characteristics of web pages are that they can contain links to other pages or resources.  This type of information is called hypertext.

As you read a web page, you will see the links.  If you click on a link using mouse, your browser will fetch and display the web pages to which that link points.

Excerpt from a Project Study  for Annual Website prepared by Mamalateo, Hipolito and Equiban.

Read More

Sample Acknowledgement


The study leader wishes to thank…

….. The Father Almighty for giving me the courage, intelligence, and strength to finished this task.

….. My families and friends who always been supported and for my inspiration.

….. My bestfriend who always be there for me in times of trouble.

….. My instructor, Ms. Jennifer Lopez for guiding me through the project.

…. To the Manager of JcMER Trading Services, Mr. Gabby Santos, for lending of their materials used in this project.

…..  To my mentor, Mrs. Rosita dela Rosa for sharing her knowledge and expertise.

….. The Dean of the College of Computer and Information Technology, Dr. Ethel  R. Bautista for trusting me in this Project.

…..The Computer Science Graduates of Pilar State University (PSU), some of the parents who responded in my questionnaire.

….. Lastly, the member of BCIS for their time, effort and sacrifices to make this project possible.

Read More

Conclusion and Recommendation for Pico Hydro Project

6.1    Conclusion

Pico hydro power generation is renewable energy resources build for simple operation, robust, reliable, efficient, low cost and low maintenance.

According to the results taken from our analysis, run off river in Sitio Catmon has the potential possibility to produce desire amount of electrical energy and is recommended for a pico hydro installation.  The available head and flow are quite more than enough to provide energy needs of the two consumers.  Although the river is being used for irrigation, there are decreasing occurrences of crop failures of the field due to its intensive irrigation schemes to sustain the availability of water.  It would also be possible to utilize the entire 35 1/s flow and more since it is run of river scheme in which all water will be returned to the stream and it taken during dry season.

Also, implementation of this kind of renewable energy project would be helpful to the community of Maluya  There is an opportunity for the pico hydro project to offer battery charging which could help the local community in addition to providing a small revenue steam to help pay routine maintenance of the system.  Based on the survey it seems likely that a battery financing and charging scheme could be developed the annual energy cost for off grid households.  Further surveying would need to be done to determine the exact details of the battery financing and the most appropriate rate for battery charging.

6.2    Recommendation

Before embarking on any hydro power generation project, it is essential to survey the proposed site to calculate the amount of available hydro power.  The two vital factors to consider are the flow and the head of stream or river.  The larger the flow – i.e. the more water there is, and the higher the head – i.e. the higher the distance the waterfalls the more energy is available for conversion of electricity.  Double the flow and double the power double the head the power gain.

Water turbines are generally considered as clean power producer, as the turbine causes essentially no change to the water.  They used as renewable energy source and are designed to operate for decades.  Constant maintenance and repair works will be required in this system otherwise the life of the generating equipment will be considerably reduced.  Powerhouse maintenance should be done to achieve the longer life of the turbine and other generating equipments.  The greasing of bearings should be done at least twice a month or whenever necessary because it will optimize the spin of the turbine.  The two bearings are lubricated every 3 months and lower bearing seal replaced every 6 months of continues used.

The flow of water in the river should be enough throughout a year, extreme flows can affect to the system performance and the excess flow must be controlled.  For measurement of the flow it should at least be done twice a year during the lowest season (February – May) and also in the highest season (end of September – beginning of October).  Since the installation of pico hydro power house is along the river trained technicians are required to ensure long term availability of the pico hydro and to check and controlled the excess flow of rate.

Maintenance of pico hydro is just easy and simple.  It can be done without the need for special tools.  The unit has an expected life span of 4-5 years which can be extended with regular maintenance and used of high quality bearings.
Excerpt from the Project Study for Rural Electrification by Jerome dela Cruz, Kenneth Aquino, Wilgem Regino Crespo, John Andrew Molino and Rosauro Fernando Jr of BPSU.

Read More

Related Literature for Pico Hydro for Rural Electrification

2.0 Related Literature

The related literature and studies help the researcher understand his topic better because it may clarify vague points about his problem. It also guides the researcher in making comparison between his findings with the findings of other similar studies.  This chapter provides a brief discussion of the Pico hydro technology available in other countries considering its impact to the society.  In relationship, our projects also cover the potential of using the Pico hydro electric generator as a source of renewable energy with consideration to the environment.

2.1 Community Pico Hydro in Sub-Saharan Africa

Site: Kathamba, Kirinyaga District, Kenya

2.1.1    Background

This scheme was installed as part of a program implemented by The Micro Hydro Centre at Nottingham Trent University to demonstrate  Pico Hydro technology in Sub Saharan Africa.  The cost of the penstock, turbine and generator equipment was met by the project funders (European Commission) and all other costs were contributed by the 65 households which the scheme now supplies with electricity.

2.1.2    Technical Summary

This case study describes a pico hydro plant using a Pelton turbine directly-coupled to an induction generator which has an electrical output of 1.1kW.  The penstock is 158m in length, 110 mm diameter PVC pipe.  The net head is 28m and the flow into the turbine is 8.4 l/s.  The electrical output of 1.1kW corresponds to a turbine generator efficiency of 48%.  The water source is a small spring with a flow rate of at least 51/s during 90% of the year ad has never been known to run completely dry.  Approximately 80m3 of storage has been provided at the intake to ensure that the turbine can be kept running for long periods.  The generator output is regulated by means of an Induction Generator Controller to ensure that the voltage and frequency are held at the correct values during conditions of changing consumer load.  Excess power is fed to a ballast load.  A 2kW cooking ring was used for this.  There are 65 households within a 550m radius of the turbine house and these are all being connected to the generator using a single-phase distribution system and insulated copper conductors.  It is possible to do this cost-effectively since the current drawn by each house is small and restricted by a current limiter so the distribution cables are also small in diameter.  Each house has a 230V supply which is sufficient for one or two energy-saving lamps and a radio.  The locations of the generator and consumer houses were recorded using a GPS system so that a distribution plan could be developed  The average cost per house for all equipment and materials was around $58 and more than 50% of this cost was contributed by the consumers.

2.1.3    General Description of the Site

Kerugoya town lies 130 km north of Nairobi on the southern foothills of Mount Kenya (Kirinyaga in Kiswahili).  Kathamba is located on the eastern side of the Mukengeria River near to Gaghihi approximately 4km north of Kerugoya  Travelling time from the town is approximately 20 minutes along unmade roads  The spring, which provides the hydraulic power for the pico hydro system, flows into the Mukengeria River approximately 300m from the source  There are 65 houses within 550m of the junction between the stream and the river and two sites for new houses.  The principle source of income in this region is through farming and the crops grown include tea, coffee, maize and fruits.

2.1.4    Community Participation

One of the principle elements which lead to the successful implementation of this project was community participation.  This was necessary both to lower the installation cost and to foster a sense of local ownership. Once it was established that there was sufficient hydro potential at this site, the first community meeting was held to discuss the project concept.  A Community Electricity Association was formed and a committee elected to manage the installation of the project and oversee the operation of the scheme.  A written agreement was subsequently signed between the community and the implementing partners.

It was agreed that all labour for the project was to be provided by the community in addition to the building materials required for the intake and the turbine house.  The consumers also were required to pay a connection fee once the turbine was commissioned.  This covered the costs of the distribution cables, housewiring and energy saving lighting bulbs.  The community association was also required to register with the local government office and to open a bank account in order to save the local contributions towards the project costs.

2.1.5    Intake and Storage Pond

The design flow for this scheme was just over 8 litres per second.  This flow will normally be available throughout most of the year although during the driest periods when it can fall to 3 l/s/  A small concrete weir was designed which would provide sufficient depth of water to ensure that the penstock is fully submerged at all times.  The natural storage area behind this weir was also enlarged by widening of the banks to 4-5 meters width and 20m length.  This provides sufficient storage to supply the extra flow required for 4 hours of evening lighting during the driest part of the year when the shortfall is at a maximum of 5.5 l/s/ 5.5  60  60 x 4 hours = 79,200 litres storage capacity required (79.2 m3).

Storage provided = 4m wide x 20m length x 1 m depth = 80m3

2.1.6    Penstock

The penstock pipe conveys water from the intake to the turbine and provides the pressure required at the nozzle.  The length required was 158 metres.  This was the shortest measured distance between the intake and the turbine.  PVC pipe with a diameter of 110mm was selected.  This gave 2m head loss with a flow of 8 l/s and provided a net head of 28m. Class B PVC (6 bar pressure rating) although a lower pressure rating could have been used if available.  The increased wall thickness however improved the reliability and lifetime of the penstock.  A trench was dug from the intake to the turbine house so that the pipe could be buried to anchor it in place and to protect it from damage by the sun.

2.1.7    Turbine house

The location for the turbine house was chosen to give the maximum available head whilst still being high enough away from the river at the bottom of the valley to avoid flooding during the rains.  The building was constructed using local stone and timber to minimize material and transportation costs.  The farmer who owned the land where powerhouse was constructed was given a free light as a concession by the local community in return for the land which was used.

2.1.8    Turbine

A Peltron turbine runner was used to convert the hydraulic power into rotating mechanical power.  This was connected directly to an induction generator and housed inside a metal casing.  The Peltron runner is defined in terms of its p.c.d. (pitch circle diameter).  Runner p.c.d.’s of 120 m, 160 mm and 200 mm were available.  Different sizes of runner operate best with different combinations of head and flow.  The runner had to rotate at the correct speed to drive the induction generator.  The speed range of these is limited because electricity at 50Hz is required for the electrical loads connected in the system.  For this site, a 6 pole generator coupled to a 200mm p.c.d. runner is suitable.  This is shown by the following equations:

The operating speed of a six pole induction generator is given by the following:

Rpm = (120 x frequency) /6 x (1 + %generator slip)

2.1.9    Local Manufacture

Turbine components were fabricated by Kenyan Electrical Distributors who received training during a 2 week course for African manufacturers of pico hydro equipment held by the Micro Hydro Centre near Nairobi in February 2001.  Another Kenyan firm, Rodson Electronics, who also participated in the training, fabricated the load controller, the enclosure and made the internal connections to the capacitors and protection equipment.

2.1.10    Generator

An IP55 1.5kW phase induction motor with 240V delta connection was selected for use as the generator.  As shown above, the required number of poles was 6.  In addition, the IP rating for the selected motor was IP55 to ensure maximum protection from entry of water and dust inside the machine.

The connection of capacitors to the motor is required in order for it to operate as a generator.  By connecting the capacitors in a C-2C arrangement it is possible to produce single-phase power efficiently from a 3-phase induction motor.

2.1.11    Operator Training

Sufficient training for key individuals was essential to ensure that the scheme will continue to be operated and maintained successfully in the future  Local electricians were involved from the beginning of the turbine and generator installation.  They were given on the job training to ensure that they could locate faults and replaced damaged components.  This was particularly important as these are the first scheme of their kind in Kenya.  The training was back up with comprehensive documentation including complete circuit diagrams and a maintenance schedule.  The new internet facility in Kerugoya town (1 hr walk from the site) provides a route to a further source of technical back-up; the operators are now able to request advice directly from pico hydro specialists in Nairobi or the UK if a problem arises which cannot be solved locally.  The consumers are charged a fixed monthly tariff depending on whether they have two lamps or one.  This is used to pay the operators wages and to contribute to a maintenance fund to replace worn components and keep the scheme operating.

2.1.12    The Distribution System

The plan below shows the position of the consumers relative to the generator.  The large circle represents a radius of 500m from the turbine house.  The location of the houses was recorded using a widely available and relatively low-cost hand-help GPS system.  This allowed the length of cable required to reach all the houses to be accurately calculated and then sized to ensure that even consumers at the furthest points in the system received a supply which was within an acceptable voltage range without excessive cost.  This was important as the entire cost of the distribution system and house wiring was met by the electricity consumers.  Local trees were used for distribution poles after basic treatment to reduce damage by termites and weathering.  The installation of the distribution system initially required a considerable degree of co-ordination to collect, treat and erect a sufficient number of poles.  Guidance was given on the required pole height, methods of treatment, and buried depth and the spacing.  Every consumer contributed one or two poles to the scheme.

The first few houses were connected under supervision from the project implementers, particularly with regard to pole positioning; cable tensioning and service were connection.  The final phase of the project, to connect the remaining houses, continued under the direction of the local electricians and committee members without the need for much external support.

The immediate prospect of electric lighting and connection of small electrical loads such as radios and, in some cases, mobile phone chargers, rapidly encouraged the payment of the remaining connection fees.  This allowed the final cables and house wiring components to be purchased.  In addition, the electricians were paid on a per consumer basis for the house wiring and therefore were keen to keep up the pace of installation of the final poles and conductors. on the right

2.1.13    Project Costs

The hydro potential at this site was limited by the small flow.  Due to the limited power available and the relatively large number of consumers living nearby, the power per house is sufficient only for one to two lamps and a radio.  This however, had the advantage that the cost of the distribution was divided amongst more people ad so households at all income levels were able to benefit.  Consumers paid for a 1 lamp or 2 lamps connection depending on how much they were able to afford.

The total cost was $58 per house.  This is particularly reasonable when compared to a lead acid battery which, when bought new, not only costs more but requires regular charging, provides DC power only and has a useful life of 2 years or less. A solar home system, providing a similar amount of power as the pico hydro has the same disadvantages as a battery only system ad would have cost at least 5 times more per house.

Excerpt from the Project Study for Rural Electrification by Jerome dela Cruz, Kenneth Aquino, Wilgem Regino Crespo, John Andrew Molino and Rosauro Fernando Jr of BPSU.

Read More

Acknowledgment Sample


We would like to express our deepest appreciation to those people who helped even in the smallest way in making the completion of this book entitled “Pico Hydro for Rural Electrification” possible.

To our instructor Engr. Nelson S. Andres, who never failed to guide us and give important advise regarding our thesis and for any problems that was encountered regarding the completion of this book.

To our parents, for the financial support and encouragement.

To our fellow classmates, for suggestions and sharing of valuable information.

And most of all to our Almighty God, for giving us everything.  Praise be to You oh Lord God.

Thank you very much!

Jerome dela Cruz
Kenneth Aquino
Wilgem Regino Crespo
John Andrew Molino
Rosauro J. Fernando Jr.

Read More