Research Paper Ideas

One of the most difficult parts of writing a research paper is finding the right topic for you. There are several topics available but ask yourself if is suited to your needs and it is interested to you. If not, it could be waste of time for you because in the long run you will find it boring. Make sure to choose a topic that you are interested in.  Narrow your topic in order to be manageable.  Reading and researching will help you to limit your topic.  It is also helpful to find a topic that is relevant to your life such as in your career to make it easier and have best results.

Brainstorming is one of the best methods in selecting your research topic. It can also helpful to narrow down your topic.  The one that will stand out on your mind more than other will be given consideration.

The following are some of the research paper ideas that might interest you
–    Abortion
–    Education
–    Internet
–    Health Issues
–    Medical Treatment
–    Sports
–    Early Pregnancy
–    Aids
–    Social Media Sites
–    Scam and Fraud Calls
–    Famous Person
–    Environment
–    Violence
–    Drugs
–    Influential Person
–    Poverty
–    Natural Calamity
–    Technology
–    Relationship
–    Media
–    Politics
–    Science
–    Literature
–    Parenting
–    Autism
–    Hobbies
–    Fitness
–    Diet
–    Business
–    Marketing

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Choosing of a Good Research Problem or Topic

To ensure the completion of the study and to make research work enjoyable to the researcher, certain criteria should be observed.

  • Within the interest of the researcher. The research problem or topic should be within the interest of the researcher so that the researcher will focus his full attention on the research work.
  • Competence of the researcher.  The researcher must have a workable understanding of his study such as the method of research to be used to the problem to his problem.
  • Specialization of the researcher.  Research problem or topic should be within the specialization of the researcher to make research work easier for him.  This will also improve his specialization skills, and competence of his profession.
  • Research budget.  The researcher should be able to finance or find funding for his research until his study is completed.
  • Personal choice of the researcher problem or topic.  This is to prevent from blaming others or offering excuses for any problem encountered.
  • Researchable and manageable research problem or topic.  All the data used should be accessible as well as equipment and instruments for research are available and can give valid and reliable results. Also, the hypothesis formulated are testable and the research problem or topic should be able to meet the standards of accuracy, objectivity and verifiability.
  • Within period of time.  Research topic should be completed within a reasonable period of time.  There must be a project time table.
  • Relevant to the present time.  Research topic should be significant, important and relevant to the present time and situation, and of current interest. In addition, it should be able to arouse people’s interest.
  • Add human knowledge. Research topic must contribute a new bit of knowledge to what we already have since all the facts and knowledge are the products of research.
  • Solve problems. Prove the way for the solution of the problems or problems intended to be solved.  After research or project have been conducted, recommendations are made for the solution and if implemented can solve the problems.
  • Moral and spiritual values. Research topic must promote divine values and admirable human values including love, peace, goodwill, etc.
  • Quality of human life.  Research topic must improve the quality of human life or show how to improve unsatisfactory conditions.

 

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Research Methodology Sample

Research Methodology

  •      Quasi-Qualitative Research

The methods evolved during the initial research following the evaluation of literature and new learning concept in quasi-qualitative research and secondary analysis methods. The literature collected enlightened the researcher’s understanding of practical and effective methods for researching educational phenomena in a technical life. New concepts in quasi-qualitative and interpretative approaches enabled the researcher’s adaptation of appropriate methods for the unique focus of this study.
The problems addressed by this study have been pointed to by research and thinking in system design bricolage, diffusion theory and secondary analysis anchored in grounded theory, with the appendices providing the background summary of said methods mentioned, to arrive at the design aspect of the subject matter which is food dehydration craft technology.

This summary of the combined research methods to acquire data inductively, evaluate it in context and to generate the approaches deem to fit the conceptual framework of the study.

The study drew a combination of approaches: heuristic-technoscience with use of bricolage, diffusion theory and secondary analysis under grounded theory precepts.

Description of Methodology

Prior to conducting a research design, an initial theoretical model was developed using heuristics from prior research and technical experience. The initial model integrated the ideas and constructions generated during the first phase. The initial research activity reviewed the literature and developed researched questions. The literature review spanned the body of journals, abstracts, relevant book sections and references from articles concerning Philippines’ secondary school education in comparison to its Asian neighbors and  across the works of food dehydration process, and industrial design disciplines.

Methodology review was conducted across the qualitative and quantitative research literature starting from phenomenology and hermeneutics-evaluative studies (Gadamer,1976; Maanen,1991; Patton,1990, Straus and Corbin,1990; Denzin and Lincoln,1994). The methods of grounded theory, Actor network theory and diffusion theory were investigated and documented. As a consequence, the combination of qualitative and quantitative methods or mix-blend, a methodological eclecticism is perhaps more acceptable than methodological purism. According to Paille’ (1996), quasi-qualitative methods can be distinguished from qualitative methods in that the latter aim to reconstruct and comprehend lived experience (meaning) stored in a certain way in texts whereas the former methods concentrate on the form of the material to be analyzed and strive for some kind of measurement. It is during the structuralists effervescence of the 1960s in France’s sociological context that numerous quasi-qualitative approaches were developed for adoption into different strands of research. The following lists few of the examples:

  • Niklas Luhman’s systems theory in the cognitive sciences, cultural and media studies influenced by North American post-structuralism; Baudrillard’s hyper-structuralist simulacra theory,  Levi-Strauss’ mathematical equations (1958,p.282) and Pêcheux’s algorithms (1969).
  • Glaser and Strauss (1967,pp.103-105) in their now famous introduction to constant comparative analysis briefly describes analytic induction that involves generating theory that emphasizes the generating function approach without testing thus the term grounded theory.  The theory produced by analytic induction is universal, precise and limited that’s why Glaser and Strauss’ approach involves constant comparison with properties as processes, types, consequences, dimensions and conditions.
  • The bricolage approach was termed by Claude Levi-Strauss for the pieced-together practices that provide solutions to the problem in a concrete situation. Bricolage employs the methods and theories of various disciplines when needed to understand the material in question providing a meta-analysis of the project. This method was used in the computer simulation modeling of the proposed design of the food dehydrator and is also current in the computer modeling research method.

Research Design Rationale

The heuristic-technoscience approach in the secondary analysis method includes the following processes: initial engagement (in the study of food dehydration), immersion in the technological processes; incubation, and illumination to the different food dehydration methods; explication and creative synthesis to arrive at a proposed design.

Secondary data were used in the analysis to inform, confirm and constrain the mathematical interpretation and subsequently the design of the food dehydrator and the accompanying process steps in dehydration.

An overview of the diffusion theory and its application in this dissertation provides a framework for examining how diffusion theory can be applied to the adoption of food dehydration craft technology. Disciplines ranging from agriculture to management which includes education to marketing have used diffusion theory to increase the adoption of innovative ideas, methods and products. Everett M. Rogers (1995), the best known scholar in the area of diffusion research who wrote the book Diffusion of Innovations (4th Ed,2003), is the most often cited work dealing with diffusion. As Rogers (2003) points out, diffusion is not the single encompassing theory but several theoretical perspectives, a meta-theory related to the overall concept of diffusion. Rogers (1997) defines diffusion as the process by which innovations are introduced and communicated through certain channels over time among members of a social system.

Rogers’ definition contains four elements that are present in the diffusion of innovation process. The four main elements are:

  1. Innovation – an idea, practices, or objects that is perceived as knew by an individual or other unit of adoption.
  2. Communication channels – the means by which messages get from one individual to another.
  3. Time – the three time factors are:

(a) innovation-decision process
(b) relative time with which an innovation is adopted by an individual or group.
(c) innovation’s rate of adoption.
4. Social system – a set of interrelated units that are engaged in joint problem solving to accomplish a common goal and the education field is one social system.
An innovation is an idea, practice or object that is perceived to be new by an individual and communication is a process in which participants create and share information with one another to reach a common goal (Rogers,2003). This diffusion research focuses on five elements as shown by the conceptual model: a) the characteristics of an innovation as a new learning concept; b) the teachers or learners that consider adopting the concept; c) the characteristics of the individuals that may likely adopt an innovative method or process who are the teachers and other learners, they who are open to new ways of delivering knowledge; d) the consequences for a social sector that is added knowledge and new practice paradigm in education; and e) communication channels used to process the information to flow through networks – through the teachers and other learners.

In diffusion theory terms, teachers as potential adopters are influenced in several ways. Firstly, the assumed shared values of teachers as being caring educators, wanting the best for his/her students and secondly, implicitly to improve their teaching approach and infuse innovative methods in learning concepts.

Hence much of research literature concerned with change and innovation in education and other related fields has been strongly informed and influenced by the tenets of diffusion theory. Typically applied to the study of technology based change, diffusion theory is consistent with many of the commonly used frameworks that account for change in education.

The instructional philosophy and goal in diffusion theory as applied to education is similar to those applied in the management of an organization with the end view of change or introduction of a better product or system personified by the teachers and their students as envisioned by the education establishment.

Cause and Effect Analysis in Philippine Education
The present research applies the root cause analysis to the problem besetting the Makabayan learning area which is a reflection of today’s Philippine education and uses the Ishikawa diagram or fishbone diagram due to its appearance after its originator, Kaoru Ishikawa. The “Effect” is a desirable or undesirable situation produced by a system of causes which becomes the ISSUE. The causes are grouped into four basic categories which, in the field of education, constitute the equipment, policies, procedures and the people. The fish bone diagram basically explains the causes of the problem that the Makabayan subject was and will continually confront until there is a clear delineation of what the learning area wants to impart to its learners, the students and their teachers.

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Sample Research Methodology

Research Design

1. Food Dehydration

The method to be applied in this study is in the category of experimental type of research to discuss the cause and effect relationship of a treatment on a variable. Likewise, procedural steps to be used in the laboratory experiments to be conducted in the integrated subject will be incorporated in the manual for food dehydration. The study will employ library research, data from BPRE, CLSU and DepEd and the internet as tools in the development of the course outline.

2. Approach

The research study on the proposed integrated subject’s manual for laboratory use in the school will involve three (3) aspects:
2.1. theoretical study and modeling;
2.2. design simulation and mathematical modeling;
2.3. proposed design and fabrication of a modular dehydrator;
2.4. preparation of food to be dehydrated.
The proposed course framework for the basic secondary education Makabayan subject under the Teknolohiya, Edukasyong Panatahanan at Pangkabuhayan or formerly Technology and Home Economics.

Course Title: Food Dehydration
Major Concepts/Contents:

Food dehydration will provide students the opportunity to apply scientific principles and methods with common fruits and vegetables. The subject focuses on food preservation by means of the dehydration process in addition to related consumer topics. Activities and experiments integrate science, mathematics and language arts. Students develop writing and critical reasoning skills through the process of analyzing and reporting scientific data collected during experiments. The subject outline explores a career in marketing and process management opportunities in food dehydration.

Work-based Learning Activities:

It is recommended that the school and the students select a work environment for observation, volunteering or actual work experience depending on available opportunities.

Content Standards:
After successfully completing the subject outline, the students will be able to:
a)    explore the world of food dehydration as a science
b)    demonstrate the processes involved
c)    explore a career in food dehydration and allied processes
Suggested Scope and Sequence
A. Introduction to Food dehydration
1. What is food Dehydration?
2. Scientific evaluation
2.1. Laboratory equipment
2.2. Laboratory experiments
2.3. Scientific reports
3. Dehydration Process
3.1. Purposes of Dehydration
3.2. Preparation for dehydration
3.3. Methods of dehydration
4. Metal and Wood working
4.1. Materials applicable in the fabrication of a modular dehydrator
4.2. Tools and accessories
4.3. Steps in fabrication
4.4. Testing the finish product for its efficacy
4.5. Dehydration of selected foods for the experimental phase

5. Writing the scientific report of the experiment outcomes

6. Fundamentals in Management systems of small scale food dehydration enterprise and economic study of material resources and operations dynamics.

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Research Topic Ideas

It can be frustrated to choose a right topic for your thesis or research project. How will you know if you are in the right track?  The following are some guidelines and tips in choosing research topic ideas.  You have to choose a right topic before its too late and avoiding the problems later.

Topic ideas includes about business, crime and law, media and communication, health, psychology, religion, social issues, women issues, men issues, children issues, terrorism, family issues, environmental issues , current events, news and politics, criminal justice, earth and sciences, education, history and philosophy, sociology and social work and many more.  These topics ideas are very broad so you are the one who will choose the topic that interest to you.

The following are some tips on choosing a right topic for your needs:

  • Your research topic should be original.
  • Your topic might be interesting but make sure to have enough information
  • Choose specific subject you want to study and think of the question or problem that has not been addressed before.
  • Your chosen topic should have resources and expertise to access
  • Your research topic should be possible
  • Always find a background study for your topic before finalizing it
  • Limit your topic into specific for the specific time

 

 

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Choosing a Research Paper Topics

Choosing a research topic is one of the hardest parts of developing a research.  But once you have a selected topic that is interested to you, it is now ready for the next step. It is important to choose a topic that really enjoy with you.

Select a topic that you have a personal interest and have a knowledge as well as you have desire to learn more of the selected topic. Your selected research topic should not be too broad.  Make sure to narrow your topic and interesting.

In choosing a research topic, make sure that there are available sources of information such as books, magazines, journal entries, and articles that you may use to your research.  You may also try to searching in your favorite search engine to know if the topic selected in available online. Always take a few steps before proceeding and finalizing the topic selected to ensure that it can be easy to research and has sufficient information over days and weeks to come because you don’t want to invest so much time in a project.

There are a wide range of different topics you can select according to the requirement of your school.  Examples of these topics are categorize as business, education, drugs and drug abuse, environment, family issues, health information, medical issues, religion, social issues, psychology, science, media and communication and many more.

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Research Paper Outline

Research paper has four main parts such as introduction, methodology, body and conclusion. Headings and subheadings are denoted by Roman numerals and capital letters respectively.

Introduction is the first heading in an outline for a research paper.  This contains the details and basic information in the research paper.  It should highlight the different areas of the research paper or thesis. It also defines the rationale behind the work.  It also includes the background, importance, limitations as well as assumptions. In addition, introduction should connect the methodology to the framework used to solve the problem.

Methodology has the information on how the research is conducted.  It also describes the analysis and methods used to achieve the results in the research paper.  It explains the way the thesis or research was analyzed as well as the sources of information.

The body of the research paper contains the explanation of all the ideas.  It presents all the arguments to support the thesis statement.  All arguments should be included and the strongest arguments should be the final point.

The last part of your research paper is the conclusion.  It includes the summary of all covered in the research paper such as all the arguments.

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General Parts of the Research Report

A common format in writing the research paper is to start the preliminaries.  Abstract, Table of Contents, Title Page, Acknowledgement, List of Tables and List of Figures.

Abstract

The researcher provides the readers with a “bird’s eye view” of the research either in the short form (100-175 words) or in long form (500 – 1,000 words).

The abstract shows the following:

1.    A brief discussion of the background and the objectives of the problem.
2.    A statement of the problem.
3.    A brief discussion of the research design
4.    The salient findings, conclusions and recommendations

Title Page

1.    Title of the report
2.    Full name of the researcher
3.    The subject for which the research is presented
4.    The college and department of the institution to which the research is presented
5.    The month and year in which the research is submitted

Acknowledgement

He mentions the people who guided him in the completion of the research

Table of Contents

He lists the chapter headings of the research in this section with the following:

1.    Preliminaries
2.    Chapter number
3.    Chapter titles and page citation
4.    Sub-headings of main headings and page citations
5.    Bibliography and page citations
6.    Appedix (ces) and page citations

List of Tables

He substantiates the presentation of the captions of the tables used with the following:

1.    Number of tables
2.    Caption of titles
3.    Pages in the research where the tables are located

List of Figures and Illustrations

He includes this section only if graphs, charts and other illustrations are used in the research

The list shows the following parts:

1.    Number of figures/illustrations
2.    Captions or titles
3.    Pages in the research where the figures/illustrations appear

The Text of the Research

To reflect on the researcher’s integrity, resourcefulness and creativity, the researcher follows the procedures systematically.  He uses reliable data to come up with a well-organized written research.

He presents the following

1.    Introduction
2.    Review of Related Literature
3.    Methodology
4.    Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data
5.    Summary, Conclusions, Recommendations and Implications

Introduction

He presents the following in this section:

1.    Background of the Study (This includes the theoretical and conceptual framework)
2.    Statement of the Problem
3.    Statement of the Hypothesis (Optional)
4.    Theoretical and Conceptual Framework (These are included in the Background of the Study)
5.    Definition of Terms
6.    Importance of the Study
7.    Scope and Delimitation of the Study

Review of Related Literature

He presents what has and has not been researched on the problem by explaining the basis of the theoretical framework.

He considers the following points:

1.    He includes only studies with related objectives, methods or findings.
2.    He clarifies the interrelationships between the studies reviewed by pointing out their weaknesses and strategies.
3.    He compares and contrasts the studies reviewed and the study being undertaken.

Methodologies

He presents the procedures in data gathering by including the following:

1.    Design of the study
2.    Variables and measures
3.    Sources of Data
4.    Instrumentation
5.    Procedure
6.    Treatment of research and data

Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data

To answer research questions or to test the hypothesis of the research, he breaks down data into constituent pars.  He presents, analyzes, and interprets data or evidence sequentially because the presentation explains the meaning of the data

Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

He summarizes findings to answer the   research questions.. From the collected data or evidences he forms conclusions or generalizations. From the academic discipline presented by the problem .he makes recommendation and implication and presents these for further research and for policy implementation.

The Reference Materials

Campbell (1982) states the functions of reference materials as:

1.    Allow the reader to obtain the scope of the investigation behind the report
2.    Permit the reader to locate easily full bibliographical information for materials cited in the text.
3.    Provide the reader with a foundation, with a prepared listing of words which he can use for his own research.

* The text above is taken from “Technical Writing Revised Edition by Corazon C. Obnamia, Mariano S. Dela Cruz and Margaret S. Aquino

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Sample of Descriptive and Informational Abstract

Descriptive Abstract

Flies, mosquitoes, and rats are vehicles of infection for ten widespread diseases.  These diseases can be prevented by removing or destroying the breeding places of these insects and rodents and by killing their adult forms.  Proper methods of control are described.

Informational Abstract

Flies, mosquitoes, and rats are vehicles of infection for ten widespread diseases.  These diseases can be prevented by removing or destroying the breeding places of these insects and rodents and by killing their adult forms.  The breeding of flies is controlled by proper disposal of decaying organic matter, and of mosquitoes by destroying or draining pools, or spraying them with oil.  With rats, only the indirect methods of rat-resistant houses and protected food supplies are valuable.  Control of adult forms of both insects and rodents requires use of poisons.  Screens are used for insects.  Minnows can be planted to eat mosquito larvae.

* “Insect and Rodent Control” is Section IV of Sanitation Requirements for an Isolated Construction Project, by Jerry Garrett.

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Example of Topic Outline

Kinds of Outline

1.    Topic Outline is consists of short phrases or singe word arranged.  It is most likely useful for short documents including letters, emails or memos.

2.    Sentence Outline is composed of a complete sentence.

3.    Paragraph Outline is arranged by paragraph.

Topic Outline Example

I. Introduction

A. Flies, mosquitoes, and rats as the vehicles of infection for ten widespread diseases

1. Flies
a. Mechanical transmission of disease
b. Intestinal diseases they transmit
(1) Typhoid
(2) Paratyphoid
(3) Dysentery
(4) Cholera
(5) Hookworm

2. Mosquitoes
a. Transmission of disease by biting
b. Diseases they transmit
(1) Malaria
(2) Yellow fever
(3) Dengue

3. Rats
a. Transmission of disease through harboring fleas
b. Disease they transmit
(1) Plague
(2) Typhus

B. Stopping the spread of these diseases by breaking the cycle of transmission

1. Removing or destroying the breeding places of insects and rodents
2. Killing the adult insects and rodents

II. Breeding control

A. Introduction

B. Flies
1. Breeding habits

2. Control measures
a. Sewage disposal
b. Removal of manure
(1) Time limit
(2) Storage bins
(3) Compression
c. Destruction of all decaying organic matter

C. Mosquitoes
1. Difference from flies
a. Greater difficulty in control of breeding places
b. Small percentage that carries disease

2. Disease-transmitting mosquitoes
a. Female Aedes aegypti
(1) Transmission of yellow fever and dengue
(2) Breeding in clean water in artificial containers
b. Anopheles quadrineculatus
(1) Transmission of malaria in southern United States
(2) Habit of biting at night
(a) Preference for stationary water
(b) Protection afforded by vegetation and floating matter

3. Control measures
a. Removing water
b. Spreading oil on stationary water

D. Rats
1. Lack of direct ways to control breeding of rats or their fleas
2. Prevention of breeding in specific areas
a. Building rat-resistant houses
b. Keeping rats from food

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