How to Choose a Thesis Topic

April 10th, 2014  |  Published in Thesis Writing

When your instructor or professor told you should make a thesis as requirement, you always wonder what would be the best thesis topic.  Remember that to make your thesis writing is interesting and enjoyable, it should be based on the right choose.

The following are some tips to choose a thesis topic

  • It should be based on your researcher’s interest to avoid the boredom of researching and writing.
  • Field of the specialization of the researcher in order for him to work easier and will improve skills and competence of his profession.
  • Skills of the researcher to make to easy for him solve whatever problem may come his way.
  • Budget for the thesis.  It should clearly know the exact budget for the whole thesis to be able to finance by the researcher.
  • Thesis topic should be the personal choice of the researcher to avoid blaming someone or make excuses if any obstacle will encounter.
  • It should be manageable in such a way that there is available data, equipment, instruments for research and have positive and reliable results.
  • Thesis topic should be within in a period of time.  It should be completed with the given period of time.
  • It should be related to present time.  To arouse reader’s interest, thesis topic should be relevant to present situation.
  • It should improve quality of life.


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Choosing of a Good Research Problem or Topic

April 6th, 2014  |  Published in Research Topic

To ensure the completion of the study and to make research work enjoyable to the researcher, certain criteria should be observed.

  • Within the interest of the researcher. The research problem or topic should be within the interest of the researcher so that the researcher will focus his full attention on the research work.
  • Competence of the researcher.  The researcher must have a workable understanding of his study such as the method of research to be used to the problem to his problem.
  • Specialization of the researcher.  Research problem or topic should be within the specialization of the researcher to make research work easier for him.  This will also improve his specialization skills, and competence of his profession.
  • Research budget.  The researcher should be able to finance or find funding for his research until his study is completed.
  • Personal choice of the researcher problem or topic.  This is to prevent from blaming others or offering excuses for any problem encountered.
  • Researchable and manageable research problem or topic.  All the data used should be accessible as well as equipment and instruments for research are available and can give valid and reliable results. Also, the hypothesis formulated are testable and the research problem or topic should be able to meet the standards of accuracy, objectivity and verifiability.
  • Within period of time.  Research topic should be completed within a reasonable period of time.  There must be a project time table.
  • Relevant to the present time.  Research topic should be significant, important and relevant to the present time and situation, and of current interest. In addition, it should be able to arouse people’s interest.
  • Add human knowledge. Research topic must contribute a new bit of knowledge to what we already have since all the facts and knowledge are the products of research.
  • Solve problems. Prove the way for the solution of the problems or problems intended to be solved.  After research or project have been conducted, recommendations are made for the solution and if implemented can solve the problems.
  • Moral and spiritual values. Research topic must promote divine values and admirable human values including love, peace, goodwill, etc.
  • Quality of human life.  Research topic must improve the quality of human life or show how to improve unsatisfactory conditions.


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Thesis Methodology Sample

March 22nd, 2014  |  Published in Thesis Methodology

Researchers are often taught to master only two types of methods in general terms and so become comfortable with either quantitative or qualitative analysis but not both. The result is the two methods are seldom combined and their respective strengths are ignored by adherents of each approach (Casebeer & Verhoef,1997).

A.    Research Design

The basic research method used in this study is the quasi-qualitative source genre under a trans-disciplinary approach and a diffusion inductive theme. The quasi-qualitative research approach involved interpretive procedures and numerically based representation of data in the secondary analysis method. Diffusion of Innovation theory (Rogers,2003) was used to represent the how, why and at what rate can innovation or idea/s can be adopted and diffuse to its intended target area.

B.    Procedures

Research data were sourced, collected and collated accordingly before secondary analysis method was applied in the design of the food dehydrator for its intended user, the secondary school teachers.  Quasi-qualitative source analysis was used in the evaluation of the Makabayan learning area and thereby anchored its research for the infusion of food dehydration craft technology in the Secondary School level.

The methodology of this body of research is based on the premise of its functionality to the needs of the targeted stakeholders, the learners and through them, the community.


Sample Acknowledgement

March 16th, 2014  |  Published in Project Study


The study leader wishes to thank…

….. The Father Almighty for giving me the courage, intelligence, and strength to finished this task.

….. My families and friends who always been supported and for my inspiration.

….. My bestfriend who always be there for me in times of trouble.

….. My instructor, Ms. Jennifer Lopez for guiding me through the project.

…. To the Manager of JcMER Trading Services, Mr. Gabby Santos, for lending of their materials used in this project.

…..  To my mentor, Mrs. Rosita dela Rosa for sharing her knowledge and expertise.

….. The Dean of the College of Computer and Information Technology, Dr. Ethel  R. Bautista for trusting me in this Project.

…..The Computer Science Graduates of Pilar State University (PSU), some of the parents who responded in my questionnaire.

….. Lastly, the member of BCIS for their time, effort and sacrifices to make this project possible.

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Sample of Statistical Design

March 4th, 2014  |  Published in Thesis Writing

The research study used multiple linear regression stepwise analysis of the effect of temperature to moisture removal from the raw material feed and dryness quality of the three fruits used as experimental tool with respect to the design of the modular dehydrator.

Multiple regression analysis is a multivariate statistical technique that simultaneously probe into the underlying relationships among the given set of variables. The relative magnitude of the dependent relationships is estimated simultaneously enabling the researcher to identify a set of possible predictors of the criterion variable. The formula for multiple regression is ? = a  + b1X1 + b2X2 + b3X3 + ………… + bn-1Xn-1
Where: ? = the variable to be predicted
a  = constant or intercept
b1- bn-1 = slopes of the predictor variables
X1 – Xn-1 = are the values of predictor variables

The slopes of the predictor variables can be calculated by means of the standardized beta weights, ? with respect to the standard deviations of the variables involved in the study being conducted. Multiple regression analysis includes a multiple coefficient of determination symbolized by R2, the proportion of variance in a dependent variable explained by a set of independent variables in combination.
R2 = rxy2 + rzy2 – 2*rxyrzyrxz
1 – rxz2

From the multiple linear regression equation, the slopes of the predictor variables indicate the change in the dependent variable associated with a unit increase in a given predictor, holding constant the other predictor.

To calculate the percentage moisture removed per hour of drying temperature,
MR = mi – mo
where: MR = percentage moisture removed per hour
mi = initial mass load
mo = mass per hour

To be able to know the approximate water content of the fruit to undergo dehydration and the weight reference thereafter:

Mwc = mi * %wc (1)       mwr = mw * %wcstd (2)          mdry = mi – mwr

Where: mwc = water content of food, gram water/gram fresh material
mi = initial mass feed
mwr = amount of water to be removed
wcstd = standard water content in percentage of food
mdry  = mass of dried food, gram dry basis/gram fresh material

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Research Methodology Sample

February 24th, 2014  |  Published in Research Topic

Research Methodology

  •      Quasi-Qualitative Research

The methods evolved during the initial research following the evaluation of literature and new learning concept in quasi-qualitative research and secondary analysis methods. The literature collected enlightened the researcher’s understanding of practical and effective methods for researching educational phenomena in a technical life. New concepts in quasi-qualitative and interpretative approaches enabled the researcher’s adaptation of appropriate methods for the unique focus of this study.
The problems addressed by this study have been pointed to by research and thinking in system design bricolage, diffusion theory and secondary analysis anchored in grounded theory, with the appendices providing the background summary of said methods mentioned, to arrive at the design aspect of the subject matter which is food dehydration craft technology.

This summary of the combined research methods to acquire data inductively, evaluate it in context and to generate the approaches deem to fit the conceptual framework of the study.

The study drew a combination of approaches: heuristic-technoscience with use of bricolage, diffusion theory and secondary analysis under grounded theory precepts.

Description of Methodology

Prior to conducting a research design, an initial theoretical model was developed using heuristics from prior research and technical experience. The initial model integrated the ideas and constructions generated during the first phase. The initial research activity reviewed the literature and developed researched questions. The literature review spanned the body of journals, abstracts, relevant book sections and references from articles concerning Philippines’ secondary school education in comparison to its Asian neighbors and  across the works of food dehydration process, and industrial design disciplines.

Methodology review was conducted across the qualitative and quantitative research literature starting from phenomenology and hermeneutics-evaluative studies (Gadamer,1976; Maanen,1991; Patton,1990, Straus and Corbin,1990; Denzin and Lincoln,1994). The methods of grounded theory, Actor network theory and diffusion theory were investigated and documented. As a consequence, the combination of qualitative and quantitative methods or mix-blend, a methodological eclecticism is perhaps more acceptable than methodological purism. According to Paille’ (1996), quasi-qualitative methods can be distinguished from qualitative methods in that the latter aim to reconstruct and comprehend lived experience (meaning) stored in a certain way in texts whereas the former methods concentrate on the form of the material to be analyzed and strive for some kind of measurement. It is during the structuralists effervescence of the 1960s in France’s sociological context that numerous quasi-qualitative approaches were developed for adoption into different strands of research. The following lists few of the examples:

  • Niklas Luhman’s systems theory in the cognitive sciences, cultural and media studies influenced by North American post-structuralism; Baudrillard’s hyper-structuralist simulacra theory,  Levi-Strauss’ mathematical equations (1958,p.282) and Pêcheux’s algorithms (1969).
  • Glaser and Strauss (1967,pp.103-105) in their now famous introduction to constant comparative analysis briefly describes analytic induction that involves generating theory that emphasizes the generating function approach without testing thus the term grounded theory.  The theory produced by analytic induction is universal, precise and limited that’s why Glaser and Strauss’ approach involves constant comparison with properties as processes, types, consequences, dimensions and conditions.
  • The bricolage approach was termed by Claude Levi-Strauss for the pieced-together practices that provide solutions to the problem in a concrete situation. Bricolage employs the methods and theories of various disciplines when needed to understand the material in question providing a meta-analysis of the project. This method was used in the computer simulation modeling of the proposed design of the food dehydrator and is also current in the computer modeling research method.

Research Design Rationale

The heuristic-technoscience approach in the secondary analysis method includes the following processes: initial engagement (in the study of food dehydration), immersion in the technological processes; incubation, and illumination to the different food dehydration methods; explication and creative synthesis to arrive at a proposed design.

Secondary data were used in the analysis to inform, confirm and constrain the mathematical interpretation and subsequently the design of the food dehydrator and the accompanying process steps in dehydration.

An overview of the diffusion theory and its application in this dissertation provides a framework for examining how diffusion theory can be applied to the adoption of food dehydration craft technology. Disciplines ranging from agriculture to management which includes education to marketing have used diffusion theory to increase the adoption of innovative ideas, methods and products. Everett M. Rogers (1995), the best known scholar in the area of diffusion research who wrote the book Diffusion of Innovations (4th Ed,2003), is the most often cited work dealing with diffusion. As Rogers (2003) points out, diffusion is not the single encompassing theory but several theoretical perspectives, a meta-theory related to the overall concept of diffusion. Rogers (1997) defines diffusion as the process by which innovations are introduced and communicated through certain channels over time among members of a social system.

Rogers’ definition contains four elements that are present in the diffusion of innovation process. The four main elements are:

  1. Innovation – an idea, practices, or objects that is perceived as knew by an individual or other unit of adoption.
  2. Communication channels – the means by which messages get from one individual to another.
  3. Time – the three time factors are:

(a) innovation-decision process
(b) relative time with which an innovation is adopted by an individual or group.
(c) innovation’s rate of adoption.
4. Social system – a set of interrelated units that are engaged in joint problem solving to accomplish a common goal and the education field is one social system.
An innovation is an idea, practice or object that is perceived to be new by an individual and communication is a process in which participants create and share information with one another to reach a common goal (Rogers,2003). This diffusion research focuses on five elements as shown by the conceptual model: a) the characteristics of an innovation as a new learning concept; b) the teachers or learners that consider adopting the concept; c) the characteristics of the individuals that may likely adopt an innovative method or process who are the teachers and other learners, they who are open to new ways of delivering knowledge; d) the consequences for a social sector that is added knowledge and new practice paradigm in education; and e) communication channels used to process the information to flow through networks – through the teachers and other learners.

In diffusion theory terms, teachers as potential adopters are influenced in several ways. Firstly, the assumed shared values of teachers as being caring educators, wanting the best for his/her students and secondly, implicitly to improve their teaching approach and infuse innovative methods in learning concepts.

Hence much of research literature concerned with change and innovation in education and other related fields has been strongly informed and influenced by the tenets of diffusion theory. Typically applied to the study of technology based change, diffusion theory is consistent with many of the commonly used frameworks that account for change in education.

The instructional philosophy and goal in diffusion theory as applied to education is similar to those applied in the management of an organization with the end view of change or introduction of a better product or system personified by the teachers and their students as envisioned by the education establishment.

Cause and Effect Analysis in Philippine Education
The present research applies the root cause analysis to the problem besetting the Makabayan learning area which is a reflection of today’s Philippine education and uses the Ishikawa diagram or fishbone diagram due to its appearance after its originator, Kaoru Ishikawa. The “Effect” is a desirable or undesirable situation produced by a system of causes which becomes the ISSUE. The causes are grouped into four basic categories which, in the field of education, constitute the equipment, policies, procedures and the people. The fish bone diagram basically explains the causes of the problem that the Makabayan subject was and will continually confront until there is a clear delineation of what the learning area wants to impart to its learners, the students and their teachers.


Sample Problem Statement

February 23rd, 2014  |  Published in Statement of the Problem

The Problem

Food processing and preservation transforms raw foods such as meat, vegetables, fruits and marine products into tasty, nutritious and safe to eat foods. Fruits in particular deteriorate when it has reached its stage of ripeness. In various processing methods employed, dehydration is an intermediate step in turning raw agricultural products into retail products. Dehydration makes the conventional food and pharmaceutical industries possible and profitable (Francis,2000). Dehydration under controlled conditions of temperature and humidity to a specific point and in a given time ensures superior quality of the finished product. Dehydration is one of the oldest processing techniques that offer a means of preserving foods especially fruits in a stable and safe condition. It also provides extended shelf life to fresh fruits. It is estimated that drying costs less than canning and one-fourth as much as freezing.

Dehydration techniques at present either employ solar drying methods or mechanically heated air (Nury,,1973). The equipment used for dehydration depends to a large extent upon the nature of the product being dried, the desired form of the finished product, economics, operating conditions and the technical know-how of the people doing the process (Hendly, 2000).

The technology in food dehydration can be learned at the secondary level of education and in vocational schools as well. It can be included in the home and technology subject in the Makabayan component of the Restructured Basic Education Curriculum (RBEC). The Makabayan subject in the RBEC is composed of home economics, music, arts and health education. Moreover, food dehydration technology can be offered as a new two-year course in vocational schools to give high school graduates who does not  wish to go to college an option to be an entrepreneur in the food business and related field.

The competency based format provides the means for monitoring student progress and intended to be the fundamental guide to schools for program content. The focus of said strand infusion is on food preparation, preservation, processing and related consumer topics as an added entrepreneurial concept.

The proposed teachers’ manual will emphasize full class participation and teamwork as well as individual projects and/or study. The teacher handling the subject is the facilitator and the manager of the classroom environment. The focus will be more on laboratory and project-based instruction designed to enable and inspire students to develop high-level analytical skills. Project-based learning and teaching is an inductive teaching method that begins with an assignment to carry out one or more tasks that lead to the production of a final product – a design, model or device. The culmination of the project is a written or oral report summarizing the procedural steps used to produce the product and presenting the outcome to the whole group.

Aside from modifying the experimental dehydrator through design analysis and modeling, an option window for experimentation can be carried out to come up with a comparative analysis on the quality and economics of a locally fabricated table top dehydrator that can be crafted by the school learners as an output or project.

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Sample Thesis Proposition

February 15th, 2014  |  Published in Proposition


The research study’s objective is to link the concepts from science, technology and home economics to reinforce each other making them academically complimentary. The study aims to give the teachers added knowledge in food science that they can later impart to students. Students, in turn can make informed career choices in food sciences, food craft technology and entrepreneurship.

In the education sector, a new learning concept can be infused by the Makabayan teacher in the present curricula with possible adjustments in the technology subjects so as to fit in the load hours needed to complete the course outline to be made. The Department of Education can pilot-test in one area similar to what is being done in the high school department of the Central Luzon State University in Nueva Ecija wherein food dehydration, management process and industrial arts are incorporated in its integrated technology subjects.

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Thesis Scope and Statement of the Problem

February 13th, 2014  |  Published in Thesis Writing

Statement of the Problem

The purpose of this study is to develop a source material in food dehydration craft technology which can be used by Makabayan teachers in teaching food dehydration in the Home Economics class. The purpose of the study is to answer the following questions:

  1. What will be the contents of the source material?
  2. What content/s is/are most applicable and doable for practical use of the teachers?
  3. How could secondary school teachers integrate food dehydration methods in the Makabayan subject?
  4. How to use a project based approach in the construction and design of the proposed source material?

Scope and Delimitation of the Study

The primary objective is to develop a source material in food dehydration craft technology and preparation of a manual of procedures that will serve as a guideline in performing the experiments and what will then be the output of said experiments.

The secondary objective is for the course program to provide a combination of educational and work based learning opportunities for the teachers and possibly their student’s career path after leaving the high school portals. With urban based employment growing but cannot absorb the incoming supply of labor, that is, for new high school and college graduates, entrepreneurship in the food sector can offset this imbalance.
As an addendum, the study will only include local fruits such as bananas, mangoes and pineapples as subject of dehydration in the secondary analysis mathematical modeling and proposed manual.

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Example of Conceptual Framework

February 11th, 2014  |  Published in Conceptual Framework

One needs to build a theory by using an inductive model of thinking with logic as in grounded theory as Strauss and Corbin (1990) suggested that the development of a theory is the culminating aspect of the study grounded in data gathered. This theory can be presented as a logic diagram or a visual representation of relationship among concepts. As stated by Miles and Huberman (1984), a conceptual framework explains either in graphical or narrative forms the key factors or variables and the presumed relationships among them. As elaborated by Miles and Huberman (1984):

  • Conceptual frameworks are best done graphically rather in text
  • Expect iterations in these frameworks
  • Develop simplified frameworks without arrows going in all directions
  • In conducting data analysis, develop orienting framework, then add prior theorizing and empirical research to the framework.

The basis for conceptualizing the technology of food dehydration process’ as a source material for secondary school teachers is to provide an option window for them (secondary education teachers) to acquire skills and knowledge aside from the basic subjects they teach. Such an innovative approach provides added knowledge that not only enrich the teachers’ teaching skills but can also enhance their entrepreneurial skills as they can eventually venture into income generating businesses in food dehydration.

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