Sample Scope and Delimitation

scope and delimitation

What is Scope of Study Section?

The Scope of study in the thesis or research paper is contains the explanation of what information or subject is being analyzed. It is followed by an explanation of the limitation of the research. Research usually limited in scope by sample size, time and geographic area.  While the delimitation of study is the description of the scope of study. It will explain why definite aspects of a subject were chosen and why others were excluded. It also mention the research method used as well as the certain theories that applied to the data.

Sample Scope and Delimitations
The main focus of this project was the design of an efficient Energy Recovery System of Seawater Reverse Osmosis Plant.  The system will be using pressure technology by application of pressure exchanger as an energy recovery device.  Pressure exchanger transfer pressure from a high pressure stream to slow pressure stream in a ceramic motor. The proposed system is limited only in reducing high power consumption of the high pressure pump. The project can be used in all existing Seawater Reverse Osmosis Plant in the Philippines.  Some calculations, assumptions, and selections were made as a consideration of a proper and realistic design.

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Sample Project Technical Feasibility

Energy Recovery Turbine Devices

Several devices have been designed and tested to recover the energy from the brine flow within SWRO.  The first ERD used was a turbine coupled to the centrifugal HPP (High-Pressure Pump) shaft.  Before the 1980s,  Francis turbine were applied but they were replaced by the Pelton wheel. The latter technology operates at higher efficiency in high-head applications such as large SWRO plants.  ERT’s have been widely accepted in large SWRO plants because of their reliability and proven efficiency, typically up to 88%.
The whole component efficiencies of a Pelton turbine.  ERD range from 70% to 90%.  The energy transfer efficiency of this kid of ERD is the product of the efficiencies of the nozzles (99%), the turbine (85%-90%) and the centrifugal HPP (75%-85%).  In conclusion, the peak efficiency of a Pelton turbine ERD could be estimated around 85% – 90%.
Another type of centrifugal ERD is the hydraulic turbocharger, which was used for small and medium capacity SWRO plants at the beginning of the 1990’s.  They are similar in operational concept to the Pelton turbine.  The turbocharger and the HPP are not directly connected, providing a degree of flexibility in the operation of these devices.  Also, turbochargers have a relatively small footprint and are easy to install but the overall efficiency of this ERD is typically 70-80%.

Energy Recovery Devices (Pressure Exchanger)
From the 1990s onward, several alternatives to centrifugal ERD have been designed and tested.  These kinds of devices use the principles of isobaric chambers for SWRO plants and are known as isobaric pressure exchangers.
The HPP size and its motor is substantially smaller than ERT configuration.  It should be more exactly to say that this kind of device saves energy instead of recovering energy as ERT.

There are several manufacturers of pressure exchanger devices nowadays.  ERI (PX), Calder (DWEER), RO Kinetic and KSB (SalTec DT), Danfoss (iSave) are the main manufacturers of this kind of equipment and are now competing for designing the best system.  Some optimized devices allow a real efficiency of energy from the brine stream to the feed flow of up to 97%.  Besides, the innovative ERDs for SWRO plants imply an enormous advance in the SEC reduction in this type of facilities. These devices obtain excellent SEC from 1.80 to 2.20 kWh/m in new medium capacity SWRO plants with piston HPP installed.
The Pressure Exchanger device transfer pressure from a high pressure stream to a low pressure stream in a ceramic rotor.  The rotor is fit into a sleeve between two end covers with precise clearances that, when filled with high pressure water, create an  almost frictionless hydrodynamic bearing.

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Theoretical Framework

Chapter 2

Theoretical Framework

This chapter consists of concepts, and together with their definitions and reference to relevant scholarly literature, existing theory that will guide the proponent to come up with the utmost solution to the present problem.  This chapter also shows the structure that can hold or support a theory of the design project.t

Review of Related Literature and Studies

History of Reverse Osmosis

Reverse Osmosis is a modification of the natural process known as osmosis.  A French scientist first described the phenomenon of osmosis in 1748.  This scientist noted that water spontaneously diffused through a pig bladder membrane into alcohol.  Over 200 years later, researchers modified the process of osmosis and discovered and patented the process now known as reverse osmosis.  The reverse osmosis allows the purification of contaminated water by removing dissolved and suspended matter.  Reverse Osmosis has become a key process technology.  Its use in industrial applications has had major advancements since the early 1960s.
Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure
Reverse Osmosis is a process that separates impurities from water by passing the water through a semi-permeable membrane.  The semi-permeable membrane only allows very small atoms and group of atoms such as water molecules, small organics molecules, and gasses to go through it.  Hydrated ions, or ions that have been dissolves and are therefore surrounded by water molecules, cannot pass through the membrane.  In order to understand reverse osmosis, the osmosis process needs to be understood.

Osmosis and its Cause

When two solutions with different dissolved mineral concentrations are separated by a semipermeable membrane, water flows from the less concentrated to the more concentrated solution.  The water level rises on the concentrated side of the apparatus.

The dilution of the solution with the higher concentration is caused by the process called osmosis.  The simple definition of osmosis is the tendency of a fluid to pass through a somewhat porous membrane until the concentration on both sides is equal.  Osmosis is the migration of water molecules across a membrane caused by the attraction of the dipole moment of water molecule to ions and polar molecule on the other side of a membrane.

Reverse Osmosis is a process that forces water molecules to flow against a net osmotic pressure.  This is accomplished by applying enough pressure on the high concentration side of a semi-permeable membrane to reverse the net migration of water molecules.

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Sample Thesis Table of Contents

table of contents sampleAcknowledgement
Table of Contents
List of Charts and Tables
Table 1 – Patterns of Education in the Asian Region
Table 2 – Water Content of Fruits
Table 3 – Instructional Diffusion Theory Goal and Philosophical Views
Table 4 – CLSU Science High School Curriculum
Table 5 – Revised Implementing Guidelines of the 2002 Secondary Education Curriculum
Table 6 – Secondary Education Weekly Lesson Timetable
Table 7 – Restructured Basic Curriculum for Secondary Education
Table 8, 9 and 10 – Data from Dehydration Experiment
Table 11 – Time and Temperature Variables
Table 12, 13, 14 and 15 – Tables of Comparison between Experimental and Predicted Moisture Removed from Dehydrated sample fruits
Table 16 – Table of Specifications for Dehydrator

CHAPTER 1 – The Problem and Its Solution

Background of the Study
Theoretical Framework
Conceptual Framework
Statement of the Problem
Scope and Delimitation of the Study
Significance of the Study
Definition of Terms

CHAPTER II – Review of Related Literature

Philippine Secondary Education Curriculum
Patterns of Secondary Education in the East Asian Region
Description of Core Learning Areas in the 2002 Curriculum
Introduction to Food Dehydration Process
History of Food Dehydration
Principles of Dehydration
Factors Affecting the Rate of Drying
Dehydration Process
Dehydration Phase
Classification of Drying Process
Properties of Fruits

CHAPTER III – Research Methodology

Quasi-Qualitative Research
Description of Methodology
Research Design Rationale
Cause and Effect Analysis in Philippine Education
Food Dehydration Process Research and Design
Project-based Learning Approach
Program Area Framework
The Developed Source Material for Food Dehydration Craft Technology
Secondary Analysis Method for the Design of Food Dehydrator

CHAPTER IV – Presentation of Analysis and Interpretation of Data

Makabayan Subject of the Revised Secondary Education
Fruit Dehydrator – Mechanics of Simulation Procedure

CHAPTER V – Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary of the Research Study
Conclusion of the Study
System Design

Appendix A – Education System in the Asian Region
Appendix B – Cost Analysis of Food Dehydrator
Appendix C – Dakar Framework Education for All
Appendix D – Diffusion of Innovation Theory
Appendix E – Cause and Effect, Fishbone or Ishikawa Diagram
Appendix F – Bricolage Method
Appendix G – Elements of Grounded Theory
Appendix H – Project based Learning Approach
Appendix I – Integrated Curriculum
Appendix J – Experimental and Simulated Charts

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Thesis Statement Example

sample thesis statementThesis statement is written to expresses the main idea of your paper. You should make your reader agree with your opinion and to do this, you should provide evidences to prove your opinion. This sentence may call it a thesis statement. A thesis statement is writ


ten in the form of statement not a question. Your thesis should express true opinion not exaggerated. Like for example, we can say that cellphone is amazing or cellphone is awful. This statement is seem to be exaggerated, instead , you can say that cellphone has more advantages that disadvantages or cellphone do good than harm. To prove this statement you should provides evidence.


Your thesis statement should be debatable as much as possible. For instance, we cannot say that there are high numbers of drug addicts living in Sta Rosa, because it is not debatable and it stated as a fact, instead, we can say that “There are lots of drug addicts in Sta. Rosa.” This statement can be answerable by yes or no and it is debatable.

A good thesis statement should be supported by well research supporting document to prove your claim. Like for example, “People should live to other planets.” This statement cannot be research because no person is living in other planet to prove this statement so how you should defend this claim

Other characteristic of thesis statement is that it should be specific. Specific topic example includes: “Marijuana should be legalized”, “Cause of autism can be linked to gut”, |School Official should fight cyberbullying” and “Dependence to technology makes the students lazy”.

Always makes sure that if you choose a topic in your thesis, it should be an interesting for both of you and the reader.

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Ways to Write a Thesis

writing thesisIt is very difficult for the student and professional to start writing a thesis because they do not know how to formulate a thesis statement. A good thesis should states the purpose on the document and should have a perfect structure. A weak thesis lacks in direction and uninteresting to the reader. A good thesis should have arguable claim and should be clear and specific as possible. It should also not answerable by yes or not but a fact that provides evidence. A thesis argument should prove with evidences from primary and secondary resources. These resources include articles, books, letters, diaries, government diaries, magazines, newspaper, etc.

Here are some ways to write to start a thesis:


  1. Make a question about your topic. You can construct your thesis statement by answering that question.
  2. Narrow your thesis topic. A vague topic goes to nowhere.
  3. Limit your thesis statement to one or two sentences in length.
  4. Your thesis statement should interest you so that you cannot be bored with your topic.
  5. Create a fresh and exciting argument but make sure to have enough resources about your thesis.
  6. Make sure that your thesis is provable. Ensure that it will back up with evidence.


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Research Methodology Sample

Research Methodology

Quasi-Qualitative Research

The methods evolved during the initial research following the evaluation of literature and new learning concept in quasi-qualitative research and secondary analysis methods. The literature collected enlightened the researcher’s understanding of practical and effective methods for researching educational phenomena in a technical life. New concepts in quasi-qualitative and interpretative approaches enabled the researcher’s adaptation of appropriate methods for the unique focus of this study.

The problems addressed by this study have been pointed to by research and thinking in system design bricolage, diffusion theory and secondary analysis anchored in grounded theory, with the appendices providing the background summary of said methods mentioned, to arrive at the design aspect of the subject matter which is food dehydration craft technology.

This summary of the combined research methods to acquire data inductively, evaluate it in context and to generate the approaches deem to fit the conceptual framework of the study.

The study drew a combination of approaches: heuristic-technoscience with use of bricolage, diffusion theory and secondary analysis under grounded theory precepts.
Description of Methodology

Prior to conducting a research design, an initial theoretical model was developed using heuristics from prior research and technical experience. The initial model integrated the ideas and constructions generated during the first phase. The initial research activity reviewed the literature and developed researched questions. The literature review spanned the body of journals, abstracts, relevant book sections and references from articles concerning Philippines’ secondary school education in comparison to its Asian neighbors and  across the works of food dehydration process, and industrial design disciplines.
Methodology review was conducted across the qualitative and quantitative research literature starting from phenomenology and hermeneutics-evaluative studies (Gadamer,1976; Maanen,1991; Patton,1990, Straus and Corbin,1990; Denzin and Lincoln,1994). The methods of grounded theory, Actor network theory and diffusion theory were investigated and documented. As a consequence, the combination of qualitative and quantitative methods or mix-blend, a methodological eclecticism is perhaps more acceptable than methodological purism. According to Paille’ (1996), quasi-qualitative methods can be distinguished from qualitative methods in that the latter aim to reconstruct and comprehend lived experience (meaning) stored in a certain way in texts whereas the former methods concentrate on the form of the material to be analyzed and strive for some kind of measurement. It is during the structuralists effervescence of the 1960s in France’s sociological context that numerous quasi-qualitative approaches were developed for adoption into different strands of research. The following lists few of the examples:

  • Niklas Luhman’s systems theory in the cognitive sciences, cultural and media studies influenced by North American post-structuralism; Baudrillard’s hyper-structuralist simulacra theory,  Levi-Strauss’ mathematical equations (1958,p.282) and Pêcheux’s algorithms (1969).
  • Glaser and Strauss (1967,pp.103-105) in their now famous introduction to constant comparative analysis briefly describes analytic induction that involves generating theory that emphasizes the generating function approach without testing thus the term grounded theory.  The theory produced by analytic induction is universal, precise and limited that’s why Glaser and Strauss’ approach involves constant comparison with properties as processes, types, consequences, dimensions and conditions.
  • The bricolage approach was termed by Claude Levi-Strauss for the pieced-together practices that provide solutions to the problem in a concrete situation. Bricolage employs the methods and theories of various disciplines when needed to understand the material in question providing a meta-analysis of the project.

This method was used in the computer simulation modeling of the proposed design of the food dehydrator and is also current in the computer modeling research method.
Research Design Rationale

The heuristic-technoscience approach in the secondary analysis method includes the following processes: initial engagement (in the study of food dehydration), immersion in the technological processes; incubation, and illumination to the different food dehydration methods; explication and creative synthesis to arrive at a proposed design.

Secondary data were used in the analysis to inform, confirm and constrain the mathematical interpretation and subsequently the design of the food dehydrator and the accompanying process steps in dehydration.
An overview of the diffusion theory and its application in this dissertation provides a framework for examining how diffusion theory can be applied to the adoption of food dehydration craft technology. Disciplines ranging from agriculture to management which includes education to marketing have used diffusion theory to increase the adoption of innovative ideas, methods and products. Everett M. Rogers (1995), the best known scholar in the area of diffusion research who wrote the book Diffusion of Innovations (4th Ed,2003), is the most often cited work dealing with diffusion. As Rogers (2003) points out, diffusion is not the single encompassing theory but several theoretical perspectives, a meta-theory related to the overall concept of diffusion. Rogers (1997) defines diffusion as the process by which innovations are introduced and communicated through certain channels over time among members of a social system.

Rogers’ definition contains four elements that are present in the diffusion of innovation process. The four main elements are:

  1. Innovation – an idea, practices, or objects that is perceived as knew by an individual or other unit of adoption.
  2. Communication channels – the means by which messages get from one individual to another.
  3. Time – the three time factors are:
    (a) innovation-decision process
    (b) relative time with which an innovation is adopted by an individual or group.
    (c) innovation’s rate of adoption.
  4. Social system – a set of interrelated units that are engaged in joint problem solving to accomplish a common goal and the education field is one social system.

An innovation is an idea, practice or object that is perceived to be new by an individual and communication is a process in which participants create and share information with one another to reach a common goal (Rogers,2003). This diffusion research focuses on five elements as shown by the conceptual model: a) the characteristics of an innovation as a new learning concept; b) the teachers or learners that consider adopting the concept; c) the characteristics of the individuals that may likely adopt an innovative method or process who are the teachers and other learners, they who are open to new ways of delivering knowledge; d) the consequences for a social sector that is added knowledge and new practice paradigm in education; and e) communication channels used to process the information to flow through networks – through the teachers and other learners.
In diffusion theory terms, teachers as potential adopters are influenced in several ways. Firstly, the assumed shared values of teachers as being caring educators, wanting the best for his/her students and secondly, implicitly to improve their teaching approach and infuse innovative methods in learning concepts.
Hence much of research literature concerned with change and innovation in education and other related fields has been strongly informed and influenced by the tenets of diffusion theory. Typically applied to the study of technology based change, diffusion theory is consistent with many of the commonly used frameworks that account for change in education.

research methodology

The instructional philosophy and goal in diffusion theory as applied to education is similar to those applied in the management of an organization with the end view of change or introduction of a better product or system personified by the teachers and their students as envisioned by the education establishment.

Cause and Effect Analysis in Philippine Education
The present research applies the root cause analysis to the problem besetting the Makabayan learning area which is a reflection of today’s Philippine education and uses the Ishikawa diagram or fishbone diagram due to its appearance after its originator, Kaoru Ishikawa. The “Effect” is a desirable or undesirable situation produced by a system of causes which becomes the ISSUE. The causes are grouped into four basic categories which, in the field of education, constitute the equipment, policies, procedures and the people. The fish bone diagram basically explains the causes of the problem that the Makabayan subject was and will continually confront until there is a clear delineation of what the learning area wants to impart to its learners, the students and their teachers.

thesis methodologyprepared and submitted by MARY ROSE FLORENCE S. COBAR

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Problems with Thesis Statement

Thesis statement is the heart of every essay because it states the main idea of the essay. It serves as a main idea or central message to the reader. Usually, a thesis statement is a one to two sentences that communicate the man idea and argument to the readers; there are rules to follow in order to have a right thesis statement. It should tell the reader what the document or essay is all about.

The following are some common errors or mistakes in writing a thesis statement:

thesis statement

– Weak thesis statement
A weak thesis statement has no claim and it is also obviously statement of fact.

– Too broad topic
Thesis statement should not be too broad because the writer may not discuss all points presented. Topic should be narrowed down to become more specific. Argument should be supported by enough evidence to support your claim.

– Not arguable topic
Thesis statement should be debatable. If thesis statement is not arguable, the thesis or essay becomes weakened and it will lack the purpose and direction. It should be strong argument.

– Too specific topic
Thesis statement should not be too specific because there is no enough information to support your claim.

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Thesis Proposal Outline

Thesis proposal is written to solve a problem and describe the solution to this problem and explain the type of research being used. It should be well written and well research.

Thesis stthesis proposal outlineructure will slightly vary depending on the subject matter of the thesis and the area of the study. Below is an example of Thesis Proposal Outline:


  • Title Page – It is the first page of your thesis which contains the lay out of what the thesis is all about with school you are representing, your mentors and your course. It has specific layout with signed by the mentors/
  • Abstract – This section should be very short with no more than 200 words but it should provides key statement to the thesis with brief introduction, summary that address the issue and possible implications of the work. It contains the brief summary on what was studied as well as findings of the study.
  • Table of Contents – It contains the outline of your thesis proposal with the corresponding page number. It is not required if your thesis proposal is only two pages long.
  • Introduction – It should capture the reader’s interest by including useful information.
  • Thesis Statement – It states the thesis and clarifies the hypothesis or theory that you want to prove with the thesis. It will give the reader to understand the scope of your overall thesis paper.
  • Methodology – It provides everything you did to attain your conclusion or hypothesis. It contains the approach such as the procedures you used. It includes the calculations, equipment, graphs and other information.
  • Results and Discussion – It presents the results that come up and draw up conclusion in connection to the research you have done. It includes both negative and positive findings. It contains your observation and interpretations of the results and how you interpret your findings. You have to detail some of preliminary findings.
  • Time Table – It discuss here the activities to do until your thesis project is complete. You can use a table to list the stages or steps including any deadlines as well as the challenges you face.
  • Implication of Research – It includes any new knowledge that comes up as well as any implication or problems find during the research.
  • Bibliography – It provides the list of references and citations through the work.

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Sample Thesis Acknowledgement


This dissertation would not have been possible without the guidance and the help of several individuals who in one way or another contributed and extended their valuable assistance in the preparation and completion of this study.

First and foremost, my utmost gratitude to Dr. Nilo L. Rosas, President of the Philippine Normal University whose sincerity and encouragement I will never forget. Dr. Rosas has been my inspiration as I hurdle all the obstacles in the completion this research work.

Dr. Norma J. Manaloto, former Head of the Department of Educational Management, Measurement and Evaluation, who until her day of retirement had kind concern and consideration regarding my academic requirements.

Dr. Alice D. Dioquino, for her unselfish and unfailing support as my dissertation adviser;

Engr. Alex A. Santos, co-adviser to Dr. Dioquino, for his patience and steadfast encouragement to complete this study;

Dr. Danilo K. Villena, Head of the Department of Education acknowledgement sampleManagement and Measurement, for the moral support despite his just being newly appointed;

Dr. Angelita D. Romero, Dean of the College of Education, for the insights she has shared;

Dr. Florentina L. Gorospe, Dr. Jose Rizal Sanchez and Dr. Rebecca C. Nueva-Espa?a for their inputs especially in the curriculum part of this study. They have shared valuable insights in the relevance of the study to basic education not just in the technology sector.

The staff of the PNU President’s Office especially Ms. Didi, Vic and Noel for being accommodating to our queries likewise the secretary of the Educational Management Department Chair and her student assistant for all the help.

Dr. Generosa Eligio, Principal of the CLSU Science High School and Engr. Donald Mateo of the Bureau of Post Harvest Research Extension, Nueva Ecija, for their expertise. Despite the distance, they have painstakingly e-mailed the information I needed.

The UST ME graduates namely the Andaya group and Emas group for the literature such as catalogues and journals needed that came all the way from Nueva Ecija;

Allan Valera of Santo Tomas E-Services Providers for the assistance on how to use the software needed for my presentation;

The Administrators of the Faculty of Engineering University of Santo Tomas, for their untiring effort in encouraging the teaching staff to pursue professional growth. Likewise the staff of the Dean’s Office for their relaying every communication sent in my behalf.

Mr. Edwin G. Antonio of the UST CAD-Engineering for re-editing the electronic version of this dissertation for consistent pagination prior to printing of the required number of hard copies.

Alex Roland Realco, Jr. of the Mechanical Engineering Laboratory I for helping out in sorting and compilation of the printed copies.

My colleagues and staff in the Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering and Civil Engineering Departments for the use of facilities in the ME Lab, consultations in EE and moral support from CE.

Mechanical Engineering students who in one way or another were assistance especially when the system broke down during the course of usage.

Last but not the least, my family and the one above all of us, the omnipresent God, for answering my prayers for giving me the strength to plod on despite my constitution wanting to give up and throw in the towel, thank you so much Dear Lord.



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