Steps in Writing a Thesis

thesis-writingA thesis is the final requirement in order to graduate either in masteral or doctoral degree.  It is a final project before gaining masteral degree or doctoral degree. A thesis is not simply a research paper, it a document that you need something to prove using the facts from your research. A thesis can be an statement or arguable.

Here are the following steps to make a winning thesis:

  1. Choose the right topic for your thesis.  What problem are you going to tackle? Is this problem has a solution and have enough resources. Brainstorm and choose a topic that will be valuable, unique and reasonable. It should not be too complex topic, make sure to narrow down your topic.
  2. Make time for research time. Find the right resources for your thesis topic and as possible make timeline and stay committed to it.
  3. Organize your resources. It is necessary to take note so that you won’t confused in the end.
  4. Make an outline. This will be the preliminary outline for your actual thesis.
  5. Proofread and edit your thesis. Make sure to proofread your thesis for possible errors such as spelling or grammar.
  6. Get feedback. You can ask and get feedback from your trusted friends or colleagues. You may get their opinions, suggestions as well as the possible weak points.

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Sample Thesis Format

thesis-formatTITLE PAGE

  • This page is assigned a Roman numeral “i” although does not appear on the page
  • The date used is the month and year of commencement
  • The proponents name must appear as registered at the institution


  • The names used on the approval sheet and title page must be that under which the proponents are registered at the institution
  • Black ink is required for the signatures of approving signatories
  • The number of signature lines must equal to the number of panelists
  • The approval page required counted as page “ii” but not numbered


  • Numbered with Roman numeral “iii”


  • Number page; Roman numeral and placed at center of heading
  • Should be a concise review of the work containing a brief summary of the problem and results of the research.
    •    A short statement concerning the area of research study
    •    A brief discussion of methods and procedures used in gathering data
    •    A condensed summary of the findings and conclusions reached in the study


  •  Proponents
  • Title
  •  Key concepts
  • Degree
  • Adviser/s
  • Statement of the Purpose or Problem
  • Methodology [ Research Design and Procedure]
  • Summary of Findings
  • Recommendations


  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Contents
  • List of Tables, Charts, Figures, Plates
  • Chapters  [with Chapter I starts as page 1
  • Bibliography
  • Appendices – include Gantt Chart of Timetable
  • Curriculum Vitae


  1. Recommended font – Times Roman, size 12
  2. Line Spacing – standard double space
  3. Margins – the left hand margin must be 1½ inches wide to allow for binding; all other margins must be 1 inch wide. Adherence to this margin will leave a 6×9 inch area on each sheet of the text or illustrative material including page numbers. The right margins should not be justified. The only exceptions to the margin requirements are:
    a)    The first page of each chapter or major section of the manuscript, where typing begins 2” down from the top rather than 1” and tables and figures maybe smaller and centered but not larger than the 6×9 area.
    b)    Tables and figures must be reduced to meet margin requirements
    c)    It is not permissible to leave a single line of a paragraph or other subdivision at either the bottom or top of a page.
    d)    The last word on a page cannot be hyphenated.
  4. Pagination
    a)    Every page of the thesis must have a page number except the title page, approval page, abstract pages and CV.
    b)    Small roman numerals (ii, iii,etc) are used for the preliminary pages: acknowledgement, table of contents and list of tables
    c)    Arabic numbers are used for the remainder of the document including the text and reference material. No other numbering scheme is acceptable.
    d)    All page numbers must be placed 1” from the top, even with the right margin
    e)    On pages with a major heading such as APPENDIX or BIBLIOGRAPHY and those beginning a CHAPTER, the page is placed in the center bottom position – 1” up from bottom
    f)    Numbers of preliminary pages are placed at the center bottom in small roman numerals.

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Sample Thesis Definition of Terms

definition-of-termsBasic education curriculum. The education intended to meet basic learning needs          which lays the foundation on which subsequent learning can be based. It encompasses early childhood, elementary and high school education as well as alternative learning systems four out-of-school youth and adult learners and includes education for those with special needs.

Bricolage. Combines the French word bricoleur (do it yourself) with collage, indicating the creative juxtaposition and inventiveness of this method of research.

Caramelization. Normally associated with fruits with significant sugar content. Caramelizing is simply the burning of sugars.

Casehardening.  Is caused by too much temperature, too much air velocity and too little humidity. Symptoms include a virtual halt in dehydration and a tough leather-like outer skin. Increasing the humidity is the key to salvaging the product and normally through re-hydration.   .

Counter-flow. Refers to the direction of the air- flow within the dryer. The fresh produce laden tray enters the dryer through the low- pressure inlet. Counter-flow dehydration is normally associated with a lower process air temperature and higher quality dried products. Drying is accomplished from the inside out and casehardening is rare.

Curriculum. The set of courses and their contents offered by an educational entity or institution related to a specific learning program.

Dehydration. In food technology is referred to as the removal of moisture in food; at present defined industrially as drying by artificially produced heat under carefully controlled conditions of temperature, humidity and air-flow (Von Loesecke, 1955).

Dehydrator. In household food technology, food dryer; is an electrical appliance for drying food especially fruits and vegetables by extracting most of the moisture from it.

Design. Referred to in technology as the soul of the production, manufacturing and creative industries; creates change in the man-made world.

Diffusion theory. It is the process by which an innovation is adopted by members of a community.

Disciplinary structure. It is the cultural formation with historically specific conditions of origin, expansion, change, transformation, decline and demise; methodology specifically related to the focus of inquiry and broadly related to research strategies in the humanities, social sciences, sciences and creative or performing arts..

Efficiency. In the realm of technology, a measure of a machine’s energy effectiveness; the ratio of the amount of energy used by a machine to the amount of work done by it.

Evaporation. A process in which matter is changed from a liquid to a vapor without its temperature reaching the boiling point.

Fan. It is an accessory used to blow a current of air steadily and lightly across or around a matter.

Food science. The application of science and engineering principles in the processing, preservation, storage, handling and distribution of food.

Grounded theory. The theory derived from the process of constant comparisons, discovered, developed and provisionally verified through systematic data collection and analysis of data.

Heating element. It is an insulated or covered wire whose high resistance to an electrical current causes its temperature to rise providing heat to the surrounding materials.

Hermeneutic. The development and study of theories of interpretation and understanding of texts

Heuristics. It is the rigorous way of approaching material by trial and error and as such is used in computer research to describe the process of refinement of applications.

Inductive learning and teaching. The umbrella term encompasses a range of instructional methods including inquiry learning, problem based learning, project based learning, case-based teaching, discovery learning and just-in-time teaching.

Innovation. The term defined by Peter Drucker as a change that creates a new dimension of performance or as Rogers (2003) suggests, it is about getting ideas adopted.

Makabayan.  Colloquially termed as love for country; a subject in the revised basic education curriculum that integrates the five different learning areas namely Araling Panlipunan at Heograpiya, Teknolohiya, Edukasyon, Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan, Physical education Health Music and Art and Values education in one subject.

Methodological Eclecticism.  A constant switching between different research methods.
Moisture. Droplets of condensed or absorbed liquid or in vapor. It is the amount of water present on a certain substance measured on percentage basis.

Pedagogy.  paideia, the science, craft and art of teaching children basic education with age range from seven to seventeen.

Preserve. A method to treat or store food in such a way to protect it from decay done by pickling, drying, salting, freezing and canning.

Process. The method of preparation by a series of steps using chemicals or industrial machinery.

Quasi-statistics. The data that may not allow precise quantification or meet statistical requirements but give some indication how likely a conclusion is applicable.

Relative Humidity. It is the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor in the air to the saturation pressure corresponding to the temperature of air.

Secondary Analysis. A descriptive research study that consists of re-analyzing the data gathered by previous researcher/s and may involve a different hypothesis, different experimental design or different methods of statistical analysis. The subjects are the same, the data are the same.

Simulacra theory. A theory that covers the discussion of images, signs and how they relate to society to a world saturated by imagery, infused with media, sound and advertising.

Spoilage. It is the process of decaying or becoming damaged or rotten.
Sulfuring. An antioxidant method of treatment to preserve color, prevent loss of vitamin A and C and discourage insects and microbes in fruits.

Technology.  Defined as a purposeful application of knowledge, skills and experiences in using resources to create products or systems to meet human needs.

Theory. Is a set of inter-related constructs, definitions and propositions that present a rational view of phenomena by explaining or predicting relationships among those elements either mathematical/analog relationship or conceptual holistic relationship.

Verstehen. Term for interpretative sociology; German for understanding.

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Writing Thesis Significance of the Study

significance-of-the-studySignificance of the study is written as part of the introduction section of a thesis.  It provides details to the reader on how the study will contribute such as what the study will contribute and who will benefit from it. It also includes an explanation of the work’s importance as well as its potential benefits.  It is sometimes called rationale.

Tips in Writing the Significance of the Study


  1. Statement of the problem will guide you to write a significance of the study.  Based on your statement of the problem you will see the potential benefits of your study. Just answer this question, “What are the benefits or advantages of the study based on statement of the problem?”
  2. Determine the specific contribution of your thesis study to the society as well as to the individual

Below is an example of significance of the study of thesis entitled, “Development of a Source Material in Food Dehydration Craft Technology for the Secondary Schools” by Mary Rose Florence S. Cobar.

Significance of the Study  

     The study of dehydration technology and fabrication can be a learning paradigm in the secondary level and vocational schools to enhance the students’ knowledge and entrepreneurial skills as well. The project’s goal is designed to help students improve academic competence, develop employability skills, implement a career plan and participate in a career pathway in preparation for post secondary education or careers in the food manufacturing or services sector after graduating from high school.

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Thesis Respondents Letter

January 22, 2001

Ms. Laarni Enriquez
Accounting Head
Accounting Department
Textile Company

Dear Ms. Enriquez:

Good day!

We are graduating students of Technological University of the Philippine (TUP) with a course of Computer Science major in Information Technology.

As a requirement for our course, we are conducting a survey about Advantages of Computerized Accounting System over manual accounting system. The responded of this study are Accounting staff.

Our group chosen you to be one of our respondents of this thesis study. We hope that you will be able to give your precious time to answer our questionnaire.  Data gathered will be confidential and just use only for academic purposes. We hereby attached here our questionnaire so that you will be able to answer it the soonest possible time.

We hope for your kind consideration, support and cooperation.

Sincerely yours,

Michelle Largan
Group Leader

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Sample Scope and Delimitation

scope and delimitation

What is Scope of Study Section?

The Scope of study in the thesis or research paper is contains the explanation of what information or subject is being analyzed. It is followed by an explanation of the limitation of the research. Research usually limited in scope by sample size, time and geographic area.  While the delimitation of study is the description of the scope of study. It will explain why definite aspects of a subject were chosen and why others were excluded. It also mention the research method used as well as the certain theories that applied to the data.

Sample Scope and Delimitations
The main focus of this project was the design of an efficient Energy Recovery System of Seawater Reverse Osmosis Plant.  The system will be using pressure technology by application of pressure exchanger as an energy recovery device.  Pressure exchanger transfer pressure from a high pressure stream to slow pressure stream in a ceramic motor. The proposed system is limited only in reducing high power consumption of the high pressure pump. The project can be used in all existing Seawater Reverse Osmosis Plant in the Philippines.  Some calculations, assumptions, and selections were made as a consideration of a proper and realistic design.

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Sample Project Technical Feasibility

Energy Recovery Turbine Devices

Several devices have been designed and tested to recover the energy from the brine flow within SWRO.  The first ERD used was a turbine coupled to the centrifugal HPP (High-Pressure Pump) shaft.  Before the 1980s,  Francis turbine were applied but they were replaced by the Pelton wheel. The latter technology operates at higher efficiency in high-head applications such as large SWRO plants.  ERT’s have been widely accepted in large SWRO plants because of their reliability and proven efficiency, typically up to 88%.
The whole component efficiencies of a Pelton turbine.  ERD range from 70% to 90%.  The energy transfer efficiency of this kid of ERD is the product of the efficiencies of the nozzles (99%), the turbine (85%-90%) and the centrifugal HPP (75%-85%).  In conclusion, the peak efficiency of a Pelton turbine ERD could be estimated around 85% – 90%.
Another type of centrifugal ERD is the hydraulic turbocharger, which was used for small and medium capacity SWRO plants at the beginning of the 1990’s.  They are similar in operational concept to the Pelton turbine.  The turbocharger and the HPP are not directly connected, providing a degree of flexibility in the operation of these devices.  Also, turbochargers have a relatively small footprint and are easy to install but the overall efficiency of this ERD is typically 70-80%.

Energy Recovery Devices (Pressure Exchanger)
From the 1990s onward, several alternatives to centrifugal ERD have been designed and tested.  These kinds of devices use the principles of isobaric chambers for SWRO plants and are known as isobaric pressure exchangers.
The HPP size and its motor is substantially smaller than ERT configuration.  It should be more exactly to say that this kind of device saves energy instead of recovering energy as ERT.

There are several manufacturers of pressure exchanger devices nowadays.  ERI (PX), Calder (DWEER), RO Kinetic and KSB (SalTec DT), Danfoss (iSave) are the main manufacturers of this kind of equipment and are now competing for designing the best system.  Some optimized devices allow a real efficiency of energy from the brine stream to the feed flow of up to 97%.  Besides, the innovative ERDs for SWRO plants imply an enormous advance in the SEC reduction in this type of facilities. These devices obtain excellent SEC from 1.80 to 2.20 kWh/m in new medium capacity SWRO plants with piston HPP installed.
The Pressure Exchanger device transfer pressure from a high pressure stream to a low pressure stream in a ceramic rotor.  The rotor is fit into a sleeve between two end covers with precise clearances that, when filled with high pressure water, create an  almost frictionless hydrodynamic bearing.

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Theoretical Framework

Chapter 2

Theoretical Framework

This chapter consists of concepts, and together with their definitions and reference to relevant scholarly literature, existing theory that will guide the proponent to come up with the utmost solution to the present problem.  This chapter also shows the structure that can hold or support a theory of the design project.t

Review of Related Literature and Studies

History of Reverse Osmosis

Reverse Osmosis is a modification of the natural process known as osmosis.  A French scientist first described the phenomenon of osmosis in 1748.  This scientist noted that water spontaneously diffused through a pig bladder membrane into alcohol.  Over 200 years later, researchers modified the process of osmosis and discovered and patented the process now known as reverse osmosis.  The reverse osmosis allows the purification of contaminated water by removing dissolved and suspended matter.  Reverse Osmosis has become a key process technology.  Its use in industrial applications has had major advancements since the early 1960s.
Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure
Reverse Osmosis is a process that separates impurities from water by passing the water through a semi-permeable membrane.  The semi-permeable membrane only allows very small atoms and group of atoms such as water molecules, small organics molecules, and gasses to go through it.  Hydrated ions, or ions that have been dissolves and are therefore surrounded by water molecules, cannot pass through the membrane.  In order to understand reverse osmosis, the osmosis process needs to be understood.

Osmosis and its Cause

When two solutions with different dissolved mineral concentrations are separated by a semipermeable membrane, water flows from the less concentrated to the more concentrated solution.  The water level rises on the concentrated side of the apparatus.

The dilution of the solution with the higher concentration is caused by the process called osmosis.  The simple definition of osmosis is the tendency of a fluid to pass through a somewhat porous membrane until the concentration on both sides is equal.  Osmosis is the migration of water molecules across a membrane caused by the attraction of the dipole moment of water molecule to ions and polar molecule on the other side of a membrane.

Reverse Osmosis is a process that forces water molecules to flow against a net osmotic pressure.  This is accomplished by applying enough pressure on the high concentration side of a semi-permeable membrane to reverse the net migration of water molecules.

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Sample Thesis Table of Contents

table of contents sampleAcknowledgement
Table of Contents
List of Charts and Tables
Table 1 – Patterns of Education in the Asian Region
Table 2 – Water Content of Fruits
Table 3 – Instructional Diffusion Theory Goal and Philosophical Views
Table 4 – CLSU Science High School Curriculum
Table 5 – Revised Implementing Guidelines of the 2002 Secondary Education Curriculum
Table 6 – Secondary Education Weekly Lesson Timetable
Table 7 – Restructured Basic Curriculum for Secondary Education
Table 8, 9 and 10 – Data from Dehydration Experiment
Table 11 – Time and Temperature Variables
Table 12, 13, 14 and 15 – Tables of Comparison between Experimental and Predicted Moisture Removed from Dehydrated sample fruits
Table 16 – Table of Specifications for Dehydrator

CHAPTER 1 – The Problem and Its Solution

Background of the Study
Theoretical Framework
Conceptual Framework
Statement of the Problem
Scope and Delimitation of the Study
Significance of the Study
Definition of Terms

CHAPTER II – Review of Related Literature

Philippine Secondary Education Curriculum
Patterns of Secondary Education in the East Asian Region
Description of Core Learning Areas in the 2002 Curriculum
Introduction to Food Dehydration Process
History of Food Dehydration
Principles of Dehydration
Factors Affecting the Rate of Drying
Dehydration Process
Dehydration Phase
Classification of Drying Process
Properties of Fruits

CHAPTER III – Research Methodology

Quasi-Qualitative Research
Description of Methodology
Research Design Rationale
Cause and Effect Analysis in Philippine Education
Food Dehydration Process Research and Design
Project-based Learning Approach
Program Area Framework
The Developed Source Material for Food Dehydration Craft Technology
Secondary Analysis Method for the Design of Food Dehydrator

CHAPTER IV – Presentation of Analysis and Interpretation of Data

Makabayan Subject of the Revised Secondary Education
Fruit Dehydrator – Mechanics of Simulation Procedure

CHAPTER V – Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary of the Research Study
Conclusion of the Study
System Design

Appendix A – Education System in the Asian Region
Appendix B – Cost Analysis of Food Dehydrator
Appendix C – Dakar Framework Education for All
Appendix D – Diffusion of Innovation Theory
Appendix E – Cause and Effect, Fishbone or Ishikawa Diagram
Appendix F – Bricolage Method
Appendix G – Elements of Grounded Theory
Appendix H – Project based Learning Approach
Appendix I – Integrated Curriculum
Appendix J – Experimental and Simulated Charts

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Thesis Statement Example

sample thesis statementThesis statement is written to expresses the main idea of your paper. You should make your reader agree with your opinion and to do this, you should provide evidences to prove your opinion. This sentence may call it a thesis statement. A thesis statement is writ


ten in the form of statement not a question. Your thesis should express true opinion not exaggerated. Like for example, we can say that cellphone is amazing or cellphone is awful. This statement is seem to be exaggerated, instead , you can say that cellphone has more advantages that disadvantages or cellphone do good than harm. To prove this statement you should provides evidence.


Your thesis statement should be debatable as much as possible. For instance, we cannot say that there are high numbers of drug addicts living in Sta Rosa, because it is not debatable and it stated as a fact, instead, we can say that “There are lots of drug addicts in Sta. Rosa.” This statement can be answerable by yes or no and it is debatable.

A good thesis statement should be supported by well research supporting document to prove your claim. Like for example, “People should live to other planets.” This statement cannot be research because no person is living in other planet to prove this statement so how you should defend this claim

Other characteristic of thesis statement is that it should be specific. Specific topic example includes: “Marijuana should be legalized”, “Cause of autism can be linked to gut”, |School Official should fight cyberbullying” and “Dependence to technology makes the students lazy”.

Always makes sure that if you choose a topic in your thesis, it should be an interesting for both of you and the reader.

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